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Japan's Tachikawa Ki-9 trainer; Army Type 95
Allied Code Name: Spruce


  • Tachikawa Ki-9 trainer
  • Tachikawa Ki-9 trainer


In 1933 the Tachikawa R-5 primary trainer was tested by the Japanese Army and found to be too small. In March 1934 Tachikawa was invited to the Tokorozawa Army Flying School to discuss was the requirement would be for the next Army trainer. In April 1934 the Army ask Tachikawa to design a trainer that could be a primary or intermediate trainer depending on the engine installed and this was successfully done by Poland and Sweden.

In 1934 Ryokichi Endo designed the Ki-9 and three prototypes were built in late 1934.


For the intermediate trainer:

  • Use the Hitachi Ha-13a (350 HP) engine
  • Blind flying instruments
  • Speed of 137 mph / 220 kph
  • Endurance 3.5 hours
  • Perform 12 g maneuvers

For the primary trainer:

  • Use the Nakajima NZ (150 HP) engine


The first prototype, made to be an intermediate trainer, with the Hitachi Ha-13a engine, first flew on January 7, 1935. It was found to be difficult to fly and modifications were made that when flown for the second time on January 9, 1935, it was found to be ready for Service Trials at Tokorozawa.

The second prototype was finished as an intermediate trainer shortly afterwards.

The third prototype had the Nakajima NZ engine installed and was to be the model for the primary trainer. Its center of gravity was far back and takeoffs weren't good.


  • Ki-9 prototypes: 3
    • Manufacturer: Tachikawa Hikoki K.K. at Tachikawa
    • Production: 1934
  • Ki-9: 2,615
    • Manufacturer: Tachikawa Hikoki K.K. at Tachikawa (2,395, 1935 - 1942), Tokyo Koku K.K. (220, 1944 - 1945)


  • Army Type 95-1 Medium Grade Trainer Model A: Production intermediate trainer. Had Hitachi Ha-13a engine.
  • Army Type 95-1 Medium Grade Trainer Model B, Ki-9 KAI: Better landing gear and the fuselage was shorter. Maneuverability was improved by the movement of the center of gravity forward.


The Tachikawa Type 95 was used as an advanced trainer in aerobatics, dive bombing, and gunnery.

The Tachikawa Ki-9 was used by the Cochin China, Manchurian, and Thai air forces.


  • Army Flying Schools: Kumagaya, Mito, Tachiarai, Utsonomiya
  • Air Academy: Koku Shikan Gakko


  Tachikawa Type 95-1, Ki-9
Type Basic Trainer, Advanced Trainer
Crew 2
Engine (Type) 1: Cirrus Hermes IV
1: Hitachi Ha-13a, Army Type 95
Cylinders Radial
Ha-13a: Radial 7
Cooling Air
Net HP 130
Ha-13a: 350
Propeller blades Ha-13a: 2 wood
Span 32' 9", 33' 5/16"
10.32 m
Length 24' 8.25", 26' 3"
7.525 m
Height 9' 10 1/8", 11' 6"
3 m
Wing area 263.715 sq ft
24.5 sq m
Empty 2,238 lb
1,015 kg
Loaded 3,142 lb
1,425 kg
Load - Maximum 3,200 lb
Speed 140 mph, 149 mph
240 kph
Speed - Cruising 93 mph
150 kph
Climb to 3,280' / 1,000 m 4 minutes 55 seconds
Endurance 3.5 hours
Range 415 miles


  1. Aeronautics Aircraft Spotters' Handbook, Ensign L. C. Guthman, 1943
  2. Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, René J Francillon, 1970
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