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Japan's Imperial Army flag

Japan's Tachikawa Ki-54 trainer, transport; Army Type 1 Advanced Trainer
Allied Code Name: Hickory

Photos

  • Tachikawa Ki-54, Army Type 1 Advanced Trainer

 

Design

In 1939 Ryokichi Endo started design work for a twin engine multipurpose trainer at the request of the Koku Hombu. It was designed to be a crew trainer. This included the pilot, bombers, gunners, navigators, and radio operators.

Construction

The Ki-54s were of an all metal construction with fabric covered control surfaces.

Prototype

In the summer of 1940 the first prototype was flown. It was found to be nose heavy during landings and once modifications were made the Ki-54a was put into production in 1941.

Production

  • Total: 1,368
    • Manufacturer: Tachikawa Hikoki K.K.
    • Production: 1940 - 1945
      • 1940: 7
      • 1941: 101
      • 1942: 236
      • 1943: 386
      • 1944: 500
      • 1945: 138

Variants

  • Tachikawa Ki-54a, Army Type 1 Advanced Trainer Model A: Pilot trainer.
  • Tachikawa Ki-54b, Army Type 1 Operations Trainer Model B: Bomber crew trainer. Four 7.7 mm Type 89 machine guns for gunner training.
  • Tachikawa Ki-54c, Army Type 1 Transport Model C: Transport.
  • Tachikawa Ki-54d, Army Type 1 Patrol Bomber Model D: Anti-submarine.
  • Tachikawa Ki-59, Tachikawa Y-59: Civilian transport.
  • Tachikawa Ki-110: All wood version of the Ki-54c. Prototype was destroyed in a bombing raid.
  • Tachikawa Ki-111: Fuel tanker. Never built.
  • Tachikawa Ki-114: Advanced version of the Ki-110. Never built.

Usage

Units

  • Sentai: 108th
  • Hikodans: 20th, 25th
  • Army Air Communication School

Specifications

  Ki-54a
Type Crew Trainer
Crew 5 - 9
Engine (Type) 2: Hitachi Ha-13, Army Type 98
Cylinders Radial 9
Cooling Air
Net HP 450 each
Propeller blades 2
Dimensions  
Span 58' 8 22/32"
17.9 m
Length 39' 2 1/16"
11.94 m
Height 11' 8 15/16"
3.58 m
Wing area 430.555 sq ft
40 sq m
Weight  
Empty 6,512 lb
2,954 kg
Normal load 8,591 lb
3,897 kg
Maximum load  
Performance  
Speed at 6,560' / 2,000 m 234 mph
376 kph
Speed - Cruising 149 mph
240 kph
Climb to 16,405' / 5,000 m 20 minutes 18 seconds
Service ceiling 22,555'
7,180 m
Range 597 miles
960 km
  Ki-54b
Type Crew Trainer
Crew 5 - 9
Engine (Type) 2: Hitachi Ha-13, Army Type 98
Cylinders Radial 9
Cooling Air
Net HP 450 each
Propeller blades 2
Dimensions  
Span 58' 8 22/32"
17.9 m
Length 39' 2 1/16"
11.94 m
Height 11' 8 15/16"
3.58 m
Wing area 430.555 sq ft
40 sq m
Weight  
Empty 6,512 lb
2,954 kg
Normal load 8,591 lb
3,897 kg
Maximum load  
Performance  
Speed at 6,560' / 2,000 m 234 mph
376 kph
Speed - Cruising 149 mph
240 kph
Climb to 16,405' / 5,000 m 20 minutes 18 seconds
Service ceiling 22,555'
7,180 m
Range 597 miles
960 km
Armament 4: 7.7 mm Type 89
  Tachikawa Ki-54c
Type Transport, Light Transport
Crew 8, 2
Passengers 8
Engine (Type) 2: Hitachi Ha-13, Army Type 98
Cylinders Radial 9
Cooling Air
Net HP 450 each
Propeller blades 2
Dimensions  
Span 58' 8 22/32", 58' 9"
17.9 m
Length 39' 2", 39' 2 1/16"
11.94 m
Height 11' 8 15/16", 11' 9"
3.58 m
Wing area 430.555 sq ft
40 sq m
Weight  
Empty 6,512 lb
2,954 kg
Normal load 8,575 lb, 8,591 lb
3,897 kg
Performance  
Speed at 6,560' / 2,000 m 234 mph
376 kph
Speed - Cruising 149 mph
240 kph
Climb to 16,405' / 5,000 m 20 minutes 18 seconds
Service ceiling 22,555'
7,180 m
Range 597 miles
960 km
Armament None
  Ki-54d
Type Anti-Submarine
Crew 5 - 9
Engine (Type) 2: Hitachi Ha-13, Army Type 98
Cylinders Radial 9
Cooling Air
Net HP 450 each
Propeller blades 2
Dimensions  
Span 58' 8 22/32"
17.9 m
Length 39' 2 1/16"
11.94 m
Height 11' 8 15/16"
3.58 m
Wing area 430.555 sq ft
40 sq m
Weight  
Empty 6,512 lb
2,954 kg
Normal load 8,591 lb
3,897 kg
Performance  
Speed at 6,560' / 2,000 m 234 mph
376 kph
Speed - Cruising 149 mph
240 kph
Climb to 16,405' / 5,000 m 20 minutes 18 seconds
Service ceiling 22,555'
7,180 m
Range 597 miles
960 km
Armament  
Depth Charges 1,058 lb
480 kg
  Ki-110
Type Light Transport
Crew 2
Passengers 8
Engine (Type) 2: Hitachi Ha-13, Army Type 98
Cylinders Radial 9
Cooling Air
Net HP 450 each
Propeller blades 2
Dimensions  
Span 58' 8 22/32"
17.9 m
Length 39' 2 1/16"
11.94 m
Height 11' 8 15/16"
3.58 m
Wing area 430.555 sq ft
40 sq m
Weight  
Empty 6,512 lb
2,954 kg
Normal load 8,591 lb
3,897 kg
Performance  
Speed at 6,560' / 2,000 m 234 mph
376 kph
Speed - Cruising 149 mph
240 kph
Climb to 16,405' / 5,000 m 20 minutes 18 seconds
Service ceiling 22,555'
7,180 m
Range 597 miles
960 km
  Ki-111
Type Light Transport
Crew 2
Engine (Type) 2: Hitachi Ha-13, Army Type 98
Cylinders Radial 9
Cooling Air
Net HP 450 each
Propeller blades 2
Dimensions  
Span 58' 8 22/32"
17.9 m
Length 39' 2 1/16"
11.94 m
Height 11' 8 15/16"
3.58 m
Wing area 430.555 sq ft
40 sq m
Weight  
Empty 6,512 lb
2,954 kg
Normal load 8,591 lb
3,897 kg
Performance  
Speed at 6,560' / 2,000 m 234 mph
376 kph
Speed - Cruising 149 mph
240 kph
Climb to 16,405' / 5,000 m 20 minutes 18 seconds
Service ceiling 22,555'
7,180 m
Range 597 miles
960 km
  Ki-114
Type Light Transport
Crew 2
Passengers 8
Engine (Type) 2: Hitachi Ha-13, Army Type 98
Cylinders Radial 9
Cooling Air
Net HP 450 each
Propeller blades 2
Dimensions  
Span 58' 8 22/32"
17.9 m
Length 39' 2 1/16"
11.94 m
Height 11' 8 15/16"
3.58 m
Wing area 430.555 sq ft
40 sq m
Weight  
Empty 6,512 lb
2,954 kg
Normal load 8,591 lb
3,897 kg
Performance  
Speed at 6,560' / 2,000 m 234 mph
376 kph
Speed - Cruising 149 mph
240 kph
Climb to 16,405' / 5,000 m 20 minutes 18 seconds
Service ceiling 22,555'
7,180 m
Range 597 miles
960 km

Sources:

  1. World War II Airplanes Volume 2, Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi, 1976
  2. Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, René J Francillon, 1970
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site