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United States' T23 medium tank

Photos

T23 Medium Tank:
United States' T23 Medium Tank
Aberdeen Tank Museum
T23E3 Medium Tank:
United States' T23E3 Medium Tank
Aberdeen Tank Museum

Design

The first prototype of the T23 was completed in January 1943. To complete it so quickly it initially had a welded turret, but later prototypes were cast.

It was found that the T23 was overly heavy and thus had poor ground pressure.

T23

Built at Detroit and first to be completed.

The gyrostabilized gun could fire a 15.4 lb APC shell at a muzzle velocity of 2,600'/sec. There was also a 9.4 lb HVAP shell.

T23E3

The 76 mm gun was gyrostabilized and could fire a 15.4 lb APC shell and a 9.4 lb HVAP shell at a muzzle velocity of 2,600'/sec.

In July 1943 the Ordnance Department proposed that the T23E3 would be standardized as the M27 Medium but this was denied.

T80 Gun Mount

The T80 gun mount that was used in the T23s later was designated the M62 and was used in M4 Mediums that had 76 mm guns.

Turret

The hatch for the loader was on the left. A cupola was installed in the turret top for the commander.

Production

An order for 250 M23s was placed.

  • T23: 250
    • Production: November 1943 - January 1945
  • T23E3: 1
    • Production: August 1944

Variants

  • T23:
  • T23E2: 3" gun with torsion bar suspension.
  • T23E3: Track and suspension same as T25.
  • T23E4: Designed with HVS suspension but wasn't built.

Specifications

  T23
Crew Commander, driver, co-driver, gunner, loader.
5
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 73,500 lb
Length 19' 8 7/8", 24' 9.5"
Height 8' 4"
Width 9' 10.5", 10 2.5"
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 19 5/8"
Ground contact length 147"
Ground pressure 15 psi
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main Pilot: 75 mm M1
76 mm M1A1
Secondary  
MG 3: MG
2: .30 cal Browning MGs
.50 cal Browning MG AA
.50 cal M2HB Browning MG
2: .30 cal M1919A4 MG, coaxial, bow
Side arms 12 hand grenades
12 2" smoke bombs
Quantity  
Main 64, 68
Secondary  
MG .50 cal: 300
.30 cal: 5,000
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 12, 87
1.5" - 2.5"
Hull Front, Upper 3"@0°
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 2"@0°
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 1.5"@0°
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front 3.5"@0°
Turret Sides 2.5"@0°
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) Ford GAN
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Water
Cylinders V-8
Capacity  
Net HP 420, 470
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) Electric, Gasoline electric
Infinitely variable
Steering Through electric transmission
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline
Octane  
Quantity 186 gallons
Road consumption 1.8 gallons/mile
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°, manual and hand
Speed - Road 35 mph
Speed - Cross Country 20 mph
Range - Road 100 miles
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits -10° to +25°
Fording depth 4', 4' 8"
Trench crossing 8' 3.25"
Vertical obstacle 2'
Climbing ability 30° slope
Suspension (Type) Vertical volute
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type) Rubber or steel, rubber bushed track pin
Length  
Width 1' 4.5", 1' 4 9/16"
Diameter  
Number of links 78
Pitch 6"
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 102"
  T23E3
Crew Commander, driver, co-driver, gunner, loader.
5
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 73,000 lb, 75,000 lb
Length 19' 2 1/8", 24' 9.5"
Height 8' 4", 8' 4 5/8"
Width 10' 2.5", 10' 4"
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 19 5/8"
Ground contact length 147"
Ground pressure 15 psi
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 76 mm
76 mm M1A1
1: 3"
Secondary  
MG 3: MG
2: .30 cal Browning MGs
.50 cal Browning MG AA
.50 cal M2HB Browning MG
2: .30 cal M1919A4 MG, coaxial, bow
Side arms 12 hand grenades
12 2" smoke bombs
Quantity  
Main 68, 84
Secondary  
MG .50 cal: 300
.30 cal: 5,000
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 12, 87
1.5" - 3"
Hull Front, Upper 3"@0°
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 2"@0°
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 1.5"@0°
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front 3.5"@0°
Turret Sides 2.5"@0°
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) Ford GAN
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Water
Cylinders V-8
Capacity  
Net HP 420, 470
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) Electric
Infinitely variable
Steering Through electric transmission
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline
Octane  
Quantity 186 gallons
Road consumption 1.8 gallons/mile
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°, manual and hand
Speed - Road 35 mph, 40 mph
Speed - Cross Country 20 mph
Range - Road 100 miles
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits -10° to +25°
Fording depth 4', 4' 8"
Trench crossing 8' 3.25"
Vertical obstacle 2'
Climbing ability 30° slope
Suspension (Type) Torsion bar
Wheels each side 6 dual road wheels
Return rollers each side 3 or 5, 5
Tracks (Type) Steel skeleton, rubber bushed track pins
Length  
Width 1' 7"
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch 6"
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 102"

Sources:

  1. The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles - The Comprehensive Guide to Over 900 Armored Fighting Vehicles From 1915 to the Present Day, General Editor: Christopher F. Foss, 2002
  2. British and American Tanks of World War Two, The Complete Illustrated History of British, American, and Commonwealth Tanks 1933-1945, Peter Chamberlain and Chris Ellis, 1969
  3. Tanks of the World, 1915-1945, Peter Chamberlain, Chris Ellis, 1972
  4. Tank Data 2, Aberdeen Proving Grounds Series, E. J. Hoffschmidt and W. H. Tantum IV, 1969
  5. Profile AFV Weapons #32 The M6 Heavy and M26 Pershing, Robert J. Icks, Colonel AUS-Retired, 1971
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site