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United States' T20 medium tank

Design

As a result of a desire by the Armored Forces Board to install a 90 mm gun into the M4A3 Medium Tank the Ordnance Department approved the building of pilot models in May 1942.

A wooden mock-up was made by Fisher and was approved by the Ordnance Department in September 1942.

Three prototypes were ordered, and each had a different turret and gun for testing.

Turret

The turret on the T20s was cast. The loader had a rectangular double hatch.

T20E3

In July 1943 the Ordnance Department proposed that the T20E3 would be standardized as the M27B1 Medium but this was denied.

T22

The T22 prototype was authorized for construction in late 1942. They were similar to the T20E1.

The T22E1 had an automatic loader installed which moved the commander to the left side. The automatic loader didn't function well.

Transmission

The biggest problem the T20s and T22s had was that the transmission wasn't reliable.

Production

  • T20: 3
  • T22: 1, 2
    • Manufacturer: Chrysler Corporation

Variants

  • T20: 76 mm gun.
  • T20E1: 75 mm automatic gun. HVSS suspension. The shock absorbers were located on the front and rear bogies. Hull machine gun mount was square. Completed in June 1943.
  • T20E2: 3"/77 mm gun. Torsion bar suspension.
  • T20E3: 76 mm gun. Had torsion bar suspension. Hull machine gun mount was round.
  • T22: Built by Chrysler.
  • T22E1: Pilot vehicle number 1. Had automatic loader manufactured by United Shoe Machinery Company.
  • T22E2: Was to be armed with a 3" gun but wasn't built.

Usage

Never used overseas.

Specifications

  T20
Crew Commander, driver, co-driver, gunner, loader.
5
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 65,758 lb
30.13 tons
30,616 kg
Length w/gun 18' 10"
5.5 m
Length w/o gun 18' 10"
Height 8'
2.4 m
Width 9' 10"
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 76 mm M1
Secondary  
MG 3: MG
2: 7.62 mm (.30 cal) MG
12.7 mm (.50 cal) MG
2: .30 cal Browning MG
.50 cal Browning MG AA
MG - coaxial 1: .30 cal MG
MG - hull 1: MG
MG - antiaircraft 1: .50 cal MG
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 70
Secondary  
MG 6,000
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 64
12, 62
1.5" - 2.5"
Hull Front, Upper 2.5"@47°
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front 3.5"
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) Ford GAN
Cylinders V-8
Net HP 470
Cooling Water
Transmission Hydramatic
Capacity  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 25 mph
40 kph
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 100 miles
161 km
Turning Radius  
Elevation Limits -10° to +25°
Fording depth 4' 8"
Trench crossing  
Vertical Obstacle  
Suspension (Type) HVSS
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Track length  
Tires  
Track width 1' 4.5"
Track centers/tread  
  T20E1
Crew  
Physical Characteristics  
Weight  
Length  
Height  
Width  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 75 mm
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main  
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm)  
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) Ford GAN
Cylinders V-8
Net HP 500
Cooling  
Transmission Hydramatic
Capacity  
Performance  
Traverse  
Speed - Road  
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road  
Turning Radius  
Elevation Limits  
Fording depth  
Trench crossing  
Vertical Obstacle  
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Track length  
Tires  
Track width 1' 4 9/16"
Track centers/tread  
  T20E3
Crew Commander, driver, co-driver, gunner, loader.
5
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 67,500 lb
Length w/gun 18' 10"
Length w/o gun 18' 10"
Height 8'
Width 9' 10"
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 76 mm M1
Secondary  
MG 3: MG
2: .30 cal Browning MG
.50 cal Browning MG AA
MG - coaxial MG - coaxial
MG - hull 1: MG
MG - antiaircraft 1: .50 cal MG
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 70
Secondary  
MG 6,000
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 12, 62
1.5" - 2.5"
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) Ford GAN
Cylinders V-8
Net HP 470
Cooling Water
Transmission Hydramatic
Capacity  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 35 mph
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 100 miles
Turning Radius  
Elevation Limits -10° to +25°
Fording depth 4' 8"
Trench crossing  
Vertical Obstacle  
Suspension (Type) Torsion bar
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Track length  
Tires  
Track width 1' 6"
Track centers/tread  
  T22
Crew 5
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 69,000 lb
Length 20' 0.25"
Height 7' 9"
Width 9' 10"
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 76 mm
Secondary  
MG 3: MG
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main  
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 1.5" - 2.5"
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) Ford GAN
Cylinders V-8
Net HP 470
Cooling Water
Transmission  
Capacity  
Performance  
Traverse  
Speed - Road 25 mph
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road  
Turning Radius  
Elevation Limits  
Fording depth  
Trench crossing  
Vertical Obstacle  
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Track length  
Tires  
Track width  
Track centers/tread  

Sources:

  1. The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles - The Comprehensive Guide to Over 900 Armored Fighting Vehicles From 1915 to the Present Day, General Editor: Christopher F. Foss, 2002
  2. British and American Tanks of World War Two, The Complete Illustrated History of British, American, and Commonwealth Tanks 1933-1945, Peter Chamberlain and Chris Ellis, 1969
  3. Tanks of the World, 1915-1945, Peter Chamberlain, Chris Ellis, 1972
  4. Profile AFV Weapons #32 The M6 Heavy and M26 Pershing, Robert J. Icks, Colonel AUS-Retired, 1971
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site