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United States' Martin PBM Mariner flying boat

Photos

  • Martin PBM Mariner flying boat
  • Martin PBM Mariner flying boat
  • Martin PBM Mariner flying boat
  • Martin PBM-3B Mariner flying boat
  • Martin PBM Mariner flying boat

Design

The United States Navy in 1937 put forth a request for a new flying boat. It was initially designated the Martin Model 162.

Radar

The radar was located above the cockpit in a streamlined fairing.

Engines

The PBM's engines were mounted high on the gull wings to help keep them out of the salt water spray.

Wings

The wings were gull shaped to help keep them away from the spray of water. There were fixed floats on the ends that allowed for a staple take off in rough seas.

Tail

The tail plane was dihedral. The fins were canted inwards.

Prototype

Martin made a 3/8 scale model that was flown before the full scale prototype. It had a Chevrolet engine and a crew.

The contract for building a full sized prototype was signed on June 30, 1937.

The Martin XPBM-1 Mariner prototype first flew on February 18, 1939.

Production

Deliveries of the PBM-1 began in 1941.

Production concluded in 1949.

  • Martin XPBM-1: 1
  • Martin PMB-1: 20
  • Martin XPBM-2: 1
  • Martin PBM-3: 379
    • Production: 1942
  • Martin PBM-3B / Martin Mariner GR.I: 32
  • Martin PBM-3C: 274
  • Martin PBM-3D: 201
  • Martin PBM-3R: 50
  • Martin PBM-3S: 156
  • Martin XPBM-5: 2
  • Martin PBM-5: 631
  • Martin XPBM-5A: 1
  • Martin PBM-5A: 36
  • Total: 1,405
    • Manufacturer: Glenn L. Martin Company

Variants

  • Martin XPBM-1: Prototype. Had Wright R-2600-6 (1,600 HP) engines. The outrigger floats were retractable. The tail surfaces were flat.
  • Margin XPBM-2: Prototype. Was to have catapult equipment and more fuel.
  • Martin PBM-1: First production model. Tail surfaces were changed to a dihedral. Went into service in 1941.
  • Martin PBM-3: Outriggers were fixed. Engine nacelles were lengthened.
  • Martin PBM-3B / Martin Mariner GR Mk I: Delivered to RAF Coastal Command in August 1943.
  • Martin PBM-3C: More armor protection. Had Wright R-2600-22 engines.
  • Martin PBM-3D: Increased armament. Self sealing fuel tanks. Radar installed in a fairing over the cockpit.
  • Martin PBM-3R: Transport. Unarmed. Could carry 20 passengers.
  • Martin PBM-3S: Anti submarine warfare.
  • Martin PBM-5: Had retractable landing gear in the fuselage. Had AN/APS-15 search radar installed.
  • Martin PBM-5A: Retractable tricycle landing gear. Mostly used by United States Coast Guard.
  • Martin PBM-5E: New radar.
  • Martin PBM-5G: Coast Guard use.
  • Martin PBM-5S: Anti submarine warfare.

Usage

The Martin PBM Mariner was a replacement for the Consolidated PBY Catalina.

During World War II Australia, Britain, and the United States used the Mariner. Many countries used the Mariner into the 1950s.

First Unit

In 1941 the VP-74 Patrol Squadron received the first PBM-1s.

Rocket Assisted Take Off (RATO)

The United States Navy first used RATO on a stranded PBM in the Colorado River.

United Kingdom

The No 524 Squadron were equipped with Mariner GR MkIs for a short time.

The British returned the 27 Mariners that they had without using them in combat. They had them only 6 weeks.

U-Boat Destroyer

On June 30, 1942 was a PBM Mariners first kill when Lieutenant Richard E. Schreder sank U-158 near Bermuda.

On August 6, 1943 seven PBMs sank U-615 near Aruba.

By the end of World War II, PBM Mariners sank twelve U-Boats.

Australia

In 1943 Australia received 122 PBM-3R transports. These were used from Australia to New Guinea from mid 1944.

Specifications

  Martin PBM Mariner
Type Patrol flying boat, Transport flying boat
Crew 7 or 8
Dimensions  
Span 118'
35.97 m
Length 80'
24.38 m
Height 27' 6"
8.38 m
  Martin PBM-3 Mariner
Type Reconnaissance
Crew 9
Engine (Type) 2: Wright R-2600-12 Cyclone
Cylinders Radial 14
Cooling Air
HP 1,600 each, 1,700 each
Propeller blades 4 blade metal variable pitch
Dimensions  
Span 118'
Length 77' 2", 80'
Height 27' 6"
Weight  
Loaded 40,000 lb, 58,000 lb
Performance  
Speed at 13,000' / 3,962 m 198 mph
Service ceiling 16,900'
Range 2,137 miles
Cruising range 4,000 miles
Armament 7: MG
Bombs 2,000 lb
  Martin PBM-3B Mariner
Engine (Type) 2: Wright R-2600-12 Cyclone
Cylinders Radial 14
HP 1,700 each
Propeller blades 4 each
  Martin PBM-3C Mariner
Engine (Type) 2: Wright R-2600-12 Cyclone
Cylinders Radial 14
HP 1,700 each
Propeller blades 4 each
Weight  
Empty 32,378 lb
14,687 kg
Loaded 58,000 lb
26,309 kg
Performance  
Speed at 13,000' / 3,962 m 198 mph
319 kph
Climb 410'/minute
125 m/minute
Service ceiling 16,900'
5,151 m
Range 2,137 miles
3,439 km
Armament  
Nose turret 2: 0.5" MG
Dorsal turret 2: 0.5" MG
Waist positions 2: 0.5" MG
Tail turret 2: 0.5" MG
Bombs or depth charges 2,000 lb
907 kg
  Martin PBM-3D Mariner
Type Reconnaissance
Crew 7 or 8, 7 - 9
Engine (Type) 2: Wright R-2600-22 Cyclone piston
Cylinders Radial, Radial 14
Cooling Air
HP 1,900 each
Propeller blades 4 each
Dimensions  
Span 118'
35.97 m
Length 79' 10", 80'
24.33 m, 24.38 m
Height 27', 27' 6"
8.23 m, 8.38 m
Wing area 1,407 sq ft, 1,408 sq ft
130.71 sq m, 130.8 sq m
Weight  
Empty 33,106 lb, 33,175 lb
15,017 kg, 15,048 kg
Loaded 57,878 lb, 58,000 lb
26,253 kg, 26,309 kg
Performance  
Speed 211 mph
340 kph
Speed at 1,700' / 520 m 210 mph
338 kph
Speed at 16,000' / 4,875 m 211 mph
340 kph
Cruising speed at 1,700' / 520 m 188 mph
303 kph
Climb to 10,000' / 3,050 m 22 minutes 12 seconds
Service ceiling 19,800', 20,000'
6,035 m, 6,095 m
Range 2,235 miles, 2,240 miles
3,597 km, 3,605 km
Combat range 722 miles
1,162 km
Armament  
Turret - Nose 2: 12.7 mm / 0.5" MG
Turret - Dorsal 2: 12.7 mm / 0.5" MG
Waist positions 2: 12.7 mm / 0.5" MG
Turret - Tail 2: 12.7 mm / 0.5" MG
Bombs, Torpedoes, or Depth Charges under the engine nacelles 1,646 lb, 8,000 lb
3,629 kg
Bombs 8,000 lb
3,629 kg
  Martin PBM-5 Mariner
Engine (Type) 2: Wright R-2600-34
HP 2,100 each
Propeller blades 4 each
Armament 8: 12.7 mm / 0.5" MG

Sources:

  1. Aircraft of WWII, General Editor: Jim Winchester, 2004
  2. Aircraft of WWII, Stewart Wilson, 1998
  3. World War II Airplanes Volume 2, Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi, 1976
  4. Aeronautics Aircraft Spotters' Handbook, Ensign L. C. Guthman, 1943
  5. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Chris Bishop, 1998
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