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United States' Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bomber

Photos

Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless dive bombers:
United States' Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless dive bombers
Aeronautics Aircraft Spotters' Handbook
Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless dive bombers:
United States' Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless dive bombers
Aeronautics Aircraft Spotters' Handbook
Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bomber:
Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bomber:

Design

The Douglas SBD Dauntless was designed by Jack Northrop and Ed Heinemann.1

In 1938 the United States Navy wanted a dive bomber that would be a monoplane scout bomber.7

The Dauntless started out as the Northrop BT-1 that had a fixed undercarriage.3 The BT-1 was selected for production in 1936.7 (Northrop became a subsidiary of Douglas.)5 It then evolved into the BT-2 that had a retractable undercarriage.3 This became the redesigned XBT-2.3

There was a telescopic bombsight that went through the windshield but would sometimes fog up during the dive.1

The bomb was swung forward by a cradle that kept the bomb clear of the propeller.1

The dive brakes had large holes and were named "Swiss cheese".1

The radio operator sat in the rear of the cockpit and once entered a combat area the rear canopy was stored in the fuselage and gave the gunner a large field of fire.1

Prototype

The first test flight for the XBT-2 was on April 22, 1938.1,7

Production

In April 1939 57 SBD-1s, for the United States Marine Corps, and 87 SBD-2s, for the United States Navy, were ordered.2,5

Army Air Corps Interest

In 1940 the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) became interested in the SBD after seeing the success of the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka.3,5,7 It ordered denavalized A-24, A-24A, and A-24B.3,5

  • Douglas SBD-1: 573,7
  • Douglas SBD-2: 873,7
  • Douglas SBD-3: 5007, 5843,5
  • Douglas SBD-4: 7802,3,5,7
    • Manufacturing location: El Segundo, California.2
  • Douglas SBD-5: 2,4092,5, 3,0253,7
    • Manufacturing location: Tulsa, Oklahoma.2
  • Douglas SBD-6: 4507, 4512,3
  • Douglas A-24: 1683
  • Douglas A-24A: 1702,3,5
  • Douglas A-24B: 6152,3
  • Total: 4,8997, 5,3212, 5,9365, 5,9373
    • Manufacturer: Douglas Aircraft Company7
    • Manufacturing location: El Segundo, California7
    • Production: ? - July 19445

The last SBD-6 was produced on July 22, 1944.1

Variants

  • Douglas BT-1: Prototype.3
  • Douglas BT-2: Prototype.3
  • Douglas XBT-2: Prototype.3,7 R-1820-32 engine installed (1,000 HP).7 Retractable landing gear.7
  • Douglas SBD-1: Initial version for the Marines.3
  • Douglas SBD-1P: Photo reconnaissance.2,3
  • Douglas SBD-2: Initial version for the United States Navy.3 Had additional armament and fuel.3 Landing gear was hydraulically operated.7
  • Douglas SBD-2P: Photo reconnaissance.2,3
  • Douglas SBD-3: Added armor, two 12.7 mm machine guns in nose, and self sealing fuel tanks.2,3,5,7 First appeared in March 1941.5
  • Douglas SBD-3P: Photo reconnaissance.2,3
  • Douglas SBD-4: Had 24 volt system.2,3,5,7
  • Douglas SBD-5: Had R-1820-60 1,200 HP engine.5,7 Reflector gun sight.7
  • Douglas SBD-6: Had R-1820-66 1,350 HP engine.5,7
  • Douglas A-24: US Army version of the SBD-3.1,3,5,7 Had naval equipment removed.5 Was used on Java with little success.1 Used for training.1 168 SBD-3As were delivered the Army.2
  • Douglas A-24A: US Army version of the SBD-4.3,5,7
  • Douglas A-24B: US Army version of the SBD-5.3,5,7

Usage

Britain3, France3,5, Mexico3,5, New Zealand3,5, and the United States3,5 used the SBD Dauntless.

The Dauntless entered service in late 1940.3,5

The dive attack usually occurred from 15,000' - 20,000' / 4,500 m - 6,000 m and reached 70°.1

The famous saying "Scratch one flat-top" was said by Pilot Lieutenant Robert Dixon in his attack in a SBD Dauntless on the carrier Shoho.1

The SBD sank more ships in the Pacific than any other plane.1,2

First Assignments

In 1940 SBD-1s were assigned to the Marine Corps VMB-2 and in 1941 to the VMB-1.7

In 1941 SBD-2s were placed on the USS Enterprise in the VB-6 and VS-6 and on the USS Lexington with the VB-2.7

In the December 1941 SBD-3s were assigned to the USS Lexington, USS Saratoga, USS Yorktown, and USS Enterprise.7

Scouting Missions

Typically if 18 scouts were launched, pairs would search out 200 miles and then turn 20 - 50 miles when they would then fly to where the carrier was supposed to be.4

Pearl Harbor

By the time of Pearl Harbor 584 SBD-3s had been delivered.2 They equipped the Enterprise, Lexington, Saratoga, and Yorktown.5

Midway

The Douglas SBD-3 Dauntlesses on the USS Enterprise, USS Hornet, and USS Yorktown was critical in the destruction of the Japanese carriers.1 In less than two minutes 54 SBDs struck the fatal blows that lead to the destruction of the IJN Akagi, IJN Kaga, and IJN Soryu.5 The IJN Hiryu was also received damage from the SBD Dauntlesses.5

"Fighter"

One SBD Dauntless gunner shot down seven Mitsubishi Zero fighters in two days.1

United States Army

The SBD was sent to the Philippines in November 1941.3,5 When the Japanese took over, they were moved to Australia.3,5 In February 1942 they were moved to the Dutch Indies where they didn't perform very well.5

Britain's Fleet Air Arm

The FAA were supplied with SBD-5s but weren't used operationally.3

France

A-24Bs and SBD-5s were supplied to France which used them against the Germans along the Atlantic Coast.3 The Free French received about 40 - 50 A-24Bs in 1943.4 Training was conducted in Morocco and Algeria.4

Mexico

The Mexicans used A-24Bs on anti-submarine patrols in the Caribbean.3

New Zealand

The Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) used the SBD-2s in the No 25 Squadron from 1943 - 1944.4 They were commanded by Squadron Leader T. J. MacLean de Lange.4

Specifications

  Douglas SBD Dauntless
Type Dive bomber3
Crew 23
Engine (Type)  
Cylinders  
Cooling  
HP  
Propeller blades 33
Dimensions  
Span 41' 6"3
12.65 m3
Length 33'3
10.06 m3
Height 12' 11"3
3.94 m3
Wing area  
Weight  
Empty  
Loaded  
Performance  
Speed  
Cruising speed  
Climb  
Service ceiling  
Range  
Armament  
Nose 1 or 2: 0.5" MG3
Rear cockpit 1 or 2: 0.3" MG3
Bombs under fuselage 1,600 lb3
726 kg3
Bombs under wings 650 lb3
295 kg3
  Douglas SBD-1 Dauntless
Type  
Crew  
Engine (Type) Wright R-1820-32/52 Cyclone3
Cylinders  
Cooling  
HP  
Propeller blades  
Dimensions  
Span  
Length  
Height  
Wing area  
Weight  
Empty  
Loaded  
Performance  
Speed  
Cruising speed  
Climb  
Service ceiling  
Range  
Armament  
  Douglas SBD-2 Dauntless
Type  
Crew  
Engine (Type) Wright R-1820-32/52 Cyclone3
Cylinders  
Cooling  
HP  
Propeller blades  
Dimensions  
Span  
Length  
Height  
Wing area  
Weight  
Empty  
Loaded  
Performance  
Speed  
Cruising speed  
Climb  
Service ceiling  
Range  
Armament  
  Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless
Type Bomber5, Dive bomber6
Crew 25
Engine (Type) Wright Cyclone6
Wright R-1820 Cyclone1
Wright R-1829-522
Wright R-1820-52 Cyclone5
Wright R-1820-32/52 Cyclone3
Cylinders Radial6, Radial 95
Cooling Air5
HP 1,0001,5,6
Propeller blades  
Dimensions  
Span 41' 6"5,6
Length 31' 8"6, 32' 8"5
Height 10' 1"6, 13' 7"5
Wing area  
Weight  
Empty  
Loaded 7,800 lb6, 10,400 lb5
Performance  
Speed 250 mph5,6
Cruising speed  
Climb  
Service ceiling 27,100'5
Range 500 miles6, 1,345 miles5
Armament 4: MG5
Bombs 1,200 lb5
  Douglas SBD-4 Dauntless
Type  
Crew  
Engine (Type) Wright R-1820 Cyclone1
Wright R-1820-32/52 Cyclone3
Cylinders  
Cooling  
HP 1,0001
Propeller blades  
Dimensions  
Span  
Length  
Height  
Wing area  
Weight  
Empty  
Loaded  
Performance  
Speed  
Cruising speed  
Climb  
Service ceiling  
Range  
Armament  
  Douglas SBD-5 Dauntless
Type Carrier based scout1,2, Carrier based dive-bomber1,2,72
Crew 21
Pilot, radio operator/gunner.1
Engine (Type) Wright R-1820-60 Cyclone piston1,2
Wright R-1820-60 piston2,3,7
Cylinders Radial1,2, Radial 97
Cooling Air1
HP 1,2001,2,5,7
Propeller blades 4 constant speed7
Dimensions  
Span 41' 6.25"2, 42'1
12.65 m2, 12.66 m1
Length 33'1, 33' 1/8"2
10.06 m2, 10.09 m1
Height 12' 11"2, 14'1
3.94 m2, 4.14 m1
Wing area 325 ft2 1,2
30.19 m2 1,2
Weight  
Empty 6,535 lb7, 6,675 lb2,3
3,028 kg2,3
Loaded 10,700 lb7, 10,855 lb2,3
4,924 kg2, 4,937 kg3
Performance  
Speed  
Speed @ 10,000' /
3,050 m
254 mph1
410 kph1
Speed @ 13,800' 252 mph7
Speed @ 15,800' /
4,815 m
245 mph2,3
394 kph2,3
Cruising speed 139 mph7, 144 mph3
232 kph3
Climb 1,190'/minute2,3, 1,700'/minute1
363 m/minute2,3, 518 m/minute1
Service ceiling 24,275'1, 24,300'2,3,7
7,400 m1, 7,405 m2, 7,406 m3
Range bombing 453 miles1, 456 miles3
730 km1, 734 km3
Range scouting 771 miles1
1,244 km1
Range 1,100 miles2,3
1,770 km2,3
Range - loaded 1,115 miles7
Range - max 1,565 miles7
Armament  
Nose 2: 12.7 mm MG1,2
2: .50 cal MG7
Rear cockpit 2: 7.62 mm Browning MG1
2: 7.62 mm MG2
2: .30 cal MG7
Bombs - under fuselage 1,600 lb1,2
725 kg1, 726 kg2
Bombs - wings 650 lb1,2
294 kg2, 295 kg1
Bombs - external 2,250 lb7
  Douglas SBD-6 Dauntless
Type  
Crew  
Engine (Type) Wright R-1820-662,3,7
Cylinders  
Cooling  
HP 1,3505,7
Propeller blades  
Dimensions  
Span  
Length  
Height  
Wing area  
Weight  
Empty  
Loaded  
Performance  
Speed  
Cruising speed  
Climb  
Service ceiling  
Range  
Armament  

Sources:

  1. Aircraft of WWII, General Editor: Jim Winchester, 2004
  2. Fighting Aircraft of World War II, Editor: Karen Leverington, 1995
  3. Aircraft of WWII, Stewart Wilson, 1998
  4. SBD Dauntless Units of World War 2, Barrett Tillman, 1998
  5. World War II Airplanes Volume 2, Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi, 1976
  6. Aeronautics Aircraft Spotters' Handbook, Ensign L. C. Guthman, 1943
  7. American Attack Aircraft Since 1926, E. R. Johnson, 2012
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site