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United States' Curtiss SB2C Helldiver dive bomber, Nickname: The Beast

Photos

Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver:
United States' Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver
Aeronautics Aircraft Spotters' Handbook
Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver:
United States' Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver
Aeronautics Aircraft Spotters' Handbook
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver:

Design

The Curtiss SB2C Helldiver was designed to meet a May 1939 United States Navy specification and was Curtiss' first monoplane carrier aircraft.3,7 The SB2C was intended to replace the Dauntless that was just going into production.5 The plane was to carry bombs in an internal bomb bay6 and the aircraft had to be able to fit on an elevator 40' x 48'.4 Brewster also made a prototype, the SB2A Buccaneer which wasn't selected.5

The project engineer for Curtiss was Raymond C. Blaylock.4

The rear gunner had a large sheet of armor protecting him.1

Divebrakes were fitted to the wing and the trailing edge flaps were split.1

Prototype

The XSB2C-1 prototype first flew on December 18, 1940.2,3,4,5,7 Test pilot Lloyd Childs wasn't enthusiastic about the bomber after taking it for a test flight and discovering stability problems.4 Days later the XSB2C-1 was destroyed in a crash.7 In February 1941, during a test flight, the engine quit on an approach to landing.4 Flight tests didn't resume until May 1941.4

During trials one SB2C Helldiver broke apart.1

The specifications and thus the design was changed and the new production model wasn't completed until June 1942.3,4 It had a larger tail and revised rear fuselage.3 There was also more armor protection installed.3 There were around 880 other changes.3,4

Production

An initial order for 370 SB2C-1s was placed on May 15, 1939.4,5 This was placed well before the first prototype was completed.4,7 In June 1942 the first production aircraft flew and in December the United States Navy started to receive them.7

At the Columbus plant a "post production" line was setup to install modifications to finished aircraft coming of the main production line.4 These were mainly modifications to control surfaces and internal fixes.4

  • Curtiss XSB2C-1: 13
  • Curtiss XSB2C-6: 27
  • Curtiss SB2C-1: 9784,7
  • Curtiss SB2C-2: 2003
  • Curtiss SB2C-1C: 7783
  • Curtiss SB2C-3: 1,1123,4,7
  • Curtiss SB2C-4, Curtiss SB2C-4E: 2,0453,4,7, 2,0545
  • Curtiss SB2C-5: 9703,4,7
    • Production: February 1945 - ?4, February - October 19457
  • Curtiss A-25A / Curtiss SB2C-1A: 9003,4,7
    • Manufacturer: Curtiss (St. Louis)4
  • Total: 7,1992, 7,2003,5, 7,2037
    • Manufacturer: Curtiss-Wright Company5 Airplane Division7
    • Manufacturing location: Columbus, Ohio7;
  • SBF-1/3/4/4E/5: 3002,3,5,7
    • Manufacturer: Fairchild3, Fairchild Aircraft Limited5,7
    • Manufacturing location: Longueuil, Canada5,7
  • SBW-1/3/4/4E/5: 8943,5,7, 9842
    • Manufacturer: Canadian Car and Foundry Co. (CCF)3,5
    • Manufacturing location: Montreal, Canada3,5,7

Variants

  • Curtiss XSB2C-1: Prototype.2,3,5
  • Curtiss XSB2C-2: Prototype float plane.7 The 5th production aircraft was modified to have twin floats and a ventral fin installed.4 It was destroyed in water tests and was cancelled.4
  • Curtiss XSB2C-6: Prototype.7 Longer fuselage.7 R-2800 engine installed.7
  • Curtiss SB2C-1: Had larger fin and rudder.2,7 Carried more fuel.2 Fuel tanks were made self sealing.7 Armament was four 12.7 mm machine guns in the wings.2 Starting at the 201st plane, the wing armament was changed to two 20 mm guns.7
  • Curtiss SB2C-1A: Redesignated A-25As taken over by US Marines.2,3,5,7
  • Curtiss SB2C-1C: Had two 20 mm guns in the wings.2,3
  • Curtiss SB2C-3: Arrived in 19437/1944.2,5 Had a more powerful engine.2,3,5 Used Curtiss Electric four blade propeller.4,5 Perforated dive brakes.4
  • Curtiss SB2C-3E: APS-4 radar was in a housing under the wing.4
  • Curtiss SB2C-4: Could carry eight 5" / 127 mm rockets or 1,000 lb / 454 kg of bombs under the wings.2,3,5
  • Curtiss SB2C-4E: Had a small pod under the wing that carried radar (APS-44).2,3,4,7
  • Curtiss SB2C-5: Carried more fuel (35 gallons4).2,3,4,7 Canopy was frameless.7
  • Curtiss A-25A Shrike: United States Air Force version of the SB2C-1.2,3,4
  • SBW-1B / Helldiver I: Canadian constructed for the Royal Navy.2,3

Usage

The SB2C was used by the Australia, Britain, and United States.3

First Unit

VS-9 received the SB2C in December 1942.7

First Use

The VB-17 on the USS Bunker Hill conducted a raid on Rabaul on November 11, 1943.1,2,3,5,7

Australia

The Australians used 10 Shrikes in 1943 to 1944.3 None became operational.3

United Kingdom

Only 26 were delivered out of 450 that were ordered by 1944.1,2,4,5,7 None became operational.1,2,3,4,7

United States

The United States Navy used 5,516 during World War II.1

The United States Air Force used the SB2C Helldiver as a trainer and a target tower.1 These were called the A-25A and there were 900 produced and most of these were used by the United States Marine Corps.2,5,7

The Helldivers remaind in service until 1949.7

Specifications

  Curtiss SB2C Helldiver
Type Dive bomber1,3
Torpedo bomber1
Crew 31
Engine (Type) Wright R-2600-8 Cyclone1
Cylinders  
Cooling Air1
HP 1,9001
Propeller blades 41
Dimensions  
Span 49' 6"1, 49' 9"3
15.16 m3, 15.2 m1
Length 36' 8"1,3
11.17 m3, 11.2 m1
Height 13' 2"1,3
4.01 m3, 5.1 m1
Wing area 422 ft2 1
39.2 m2 1
Weight  
Empty 10,978 lb1
4,990 kg1
Loaded 16,610 lb1
7,550 kg1
Performance  
Speed 294 mph1
452 kph1
Speed at sea level  
Speed @ 16,700' /
5,090 m
 
Cruising speed  
Climb  
Service ceiling 29,100'1
7,530 m1
Range 1,200 miles1
1,786 km1
Armament  
Wings 2: 20 mm1,3
OR 4: 0.5" MG3
4: 12.7 mm MG1
Rear cockpit 1: 0.5" MG3
2: 7.62 mm MG1
Bombs 2,000 lb1
907 kg1
Bombs internal 1,000 lb3
454 kg3
OR  
Torpedo internal 13
  Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver
Type Bomber5, Dive Bomber6
Crew 25
Engine (Type) Wright Cyclone6
Wright R-2600-8 Cyclone3,4,5
Cylinders Radial6, Radial 143,5
Cooling Air5
HP 1,7003,4,5,6
Propeller blades 33,4
Dimensions  
Span 49' 8"6, 49' 9"5
Length 35'6, 36' 8"5
Height 13' 2"5, 16'6
Wing area  
Weight  
Empty  
Loaded 16,616 lb5
Performance  
Speed 350 mph6
Speed @ 16,700' /
5,090 m
281 mph5
Cruising speed  
Climb  
Service ceiling 25,100'5
Range 1,110 miles5, 1,200 miles6
Armament 2: MG5
2: 20 mm5
Bombs 2,000 lb5
  Curtiss SB2C-2 Helldiver
Type  
Crew  
Engine (Type) Wright R-2600-8 Cyclone3
Cylinders Radial 143
Cooling  
HP 1,7003
Propeller blades 33
Dimensions  
Span  
Length  
Height  
Wing area  
Weight  
Empty  
Loaded  
Performance  
Speed  
Cruising speed  
Climb  
Service ceiling  
Range  
Armament  
  Curtiss SB2C-3 Helldiver
Type  
Crew  
Engine (Type) Wright R-2600-203,4,7
Cylinders  
Cooling  
HP 1,9003,4
Propeller blades 43,4,7
Dimensions  
Span  
Length  
Height  
Wing area  
Weight  
Empty  
Loaded  
Performance  
Speed  
Cruising speed  
Climb  
Service ceiling  
Range  
Armament  
  Curtiss SB2C-4 Helldiver
Type Scout2, Bomber2, Dive bomber7
Crew 22,7
Engine (Type) Wright R-2600-20 piston2,3,4,7
Cylinders Radial2, Radial 147
Cooling  
HP 1,9002,3,4,7
Propeller blades 43,4, 4 constant speed7
Dimensions  
Span 49' 9"2,7
15.16 m2
Length 36' 8"2,7
11.17 m2
Height 13' 2"2
4.01 m2
Wing area 422 ft2 2,7
39.2 m2 2
Weight  
Empty 10,547 lb2,3,7
4,784 kg2,3
Loaded 16,616 lb2,3,7
7,537 kg2,3
Performance  
Speed  
Speed at sea level 270 mph3
434 kph3
Speed @ 16,700' /
5,090 m
295 mph2,3,7
475 kph3, 476 kph2
Cruising speed 158 mph3,7
254 kph3
Climb 1,800'/minute2,3
548 m/minute3, 549 m/minute2
Service ceiling 29,100'2,3,7
8,870 m2,3
Range 1,165 miles2,3
1,875 km2,3
Range with 1,000 lb weapon 1,165 miles7
Armament  
Wings 2: 20 mm2,7
Rear cockpit 2: 7.62 mm MG2
2: .30 cal MG7
Bombs  
Bombs - internal 1,000 lb2,7
454 kg2
Bombs - under wings 1,000 lb2,3,7
454 kg2,3
OR  
Rockets - under wings 85
8: HVAR7
8: 5"3
8: 12.7 cm3
Bombs internal 1,000 lb3
454 kg3
OR  
Torpedo internal 13
  Curtiss SB2C-5 Helldiver
Type  
Crew  
Engine (Type) Wright R-2600-203,4
Cylinders  
Cooling  
HP 1,9003,4
Propeller blades 43,4
Dimensions  
Span  
Length  
Height  
Wing area  
Weight  
Empty  
Loaded  
Performance  
Speed  
Cruising speed  
Climb  
Service ceiling  
Range  
Armament  

Sources:

  1. Aircraft of WWII, General Editor: Jim Winchester, 2004
  2. Fighting Aircraft of World War II, Editor: Karen Leverington, 1995
  3. Aircraft of WWII, Stewart Wilson, 1998
  4. Helldiver Units of World War 2, Barrett Tillman, 2000
  5. World War II Airplanes Volume 2, Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi, 1976
  6. Aeronautics Aircraft Spotters' Handbook, Ensign L. C. Guthman, 1943
  7. American Attack Aircraft Since 1926, E. R. Johnson, 2012
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site