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Soviet Union's SU-76 Samokhodnaya Ustanovka (self propelled mounting)
Nicknames: Suka (bitch), Golozhopil Ferdinant (naked ass Ferdinand)

Photos

SU-76 self propelled gun:
World War II Russia SU-76 Self Propelled
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SU-76 self propelled gun:
World War II Russia SU-76 Self Propelled
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Design

When the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941 there were no self propelled guns in the Russian Army. The Soviets were impressed with all the self propelled guns that the Germans were using.

In 1942 the Defense Ministry decided to produced mobile artillery guns to support infantry and armored formations. The Zavod Nr 38 design team were given the specifications to design a self propelled gun. Initially, they were going to use the T-60 chassis to build upon. This chassis was found to be too small for the gun, so it was decided to use the T-70 chassis as it was stronger.

The engine, fuel tanks, and driving positions were changed and moved to the right front. Some had rear doors and other open backs. Some had the radiators on the track covers and others in the engine compartment.

Crew

The driver was located in front of the main fighting compartment and had a passageway that connected him to the rear.

Engines

Early models had an engine placed on each side of the vehicle. This lead to many breakdowns as it was a complicated setup.

Late models had 2 GAZ 203 air cooled gasoline engines mounted in a row.

Armament

  Type Weight Velocity Range Penetration
900 m
76.2 mm ZIS-3 (1942 model) HE 6.2 kg   8,600 m 49 - 62 mm
  HE     12,580 yards  
  AP 14.3 lb 2,172'/sec    

Captured Tanks Used

A design by a team from the Zavod Nr 592 to mount a 122 mm gun on a PzKpfw III chassis wasn't successful. Later, there were approximately 300 PzKpfw IIIs and StuGs captured at Stalingrad and it was decided to bring back that basic design, but with a 76.2 mm S-1 gun instead. These became the SU-76i (inostrannaya, "foreign").

Prototype

The first prototype, the OSU-76, was built on a T-60 chassis.

The next prototype, the SU-12, was built on the T-70 chassis. It was a joint project between the Zavod Nr 38 and Zavod Nr 92 (Gorki) teams.

The Main Defense Committee (GKO) accepted it for production in December 1942 and designated it the SU-76.

SU-76i

Trials of the SU-76i were conducted at Sverdlovsk.

Production

  • SU-76: 12,600
    • Production:
      • 1942: 26
      • 1943: 1,928
      • 1944: 7,155
      • 1945: 3,552, 3,562
  • SU-76i: ~200 conversions

Variants

  • OSU-76: Prototype. Built on T-60 chassis. A 76.2 mm ZiS-3 gun was mounted at the rear of the hull with an armored casement box built around it.
  • SU-12: Prototype. Built on a T-70 chassis.
  • SU-76:
  • SU-76M: Was designed by the design bureau of N. A. Astrov. Used T-70M chassis. The engines were placed back together in a row. Production started in May 1943. The front hull was redesigned.
  • SU-76i: Conversion of captured PzKpfw III. Converted at the Tank Repair Shop in Krasnoarmaisk.

Usage

It was used in self-propelled gun regiments in mechanized and armored corps. As of April 1943 there were self-propelled gun regiments that had 4 or 5 batteries, which contained 5 SU-76s each. In 1944 several rifle and guard rifle divisions received their own units.

At first was used as a tank destroyer but was later used as an assault gun.

Kursk

At the battle of Kursk in July 1943, Colonel-General K. K. Rokossovsky's Central Front and General N. F. Vatutin's Voronezh Front used SU-76is.

Late War

The 76.2 mm gun was less useful late in World War II and many were converted to ammunition carriers.

Korean War

After World War II many of the Su-76s were transferred to China and North Korea and were used during the Korean War.

Specifications

  SU-76
Crew 4
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 23,320 lb, 23,810 lb
10,600 kg, 10,800 kg
11.2 tons, 12.3 tons
Length 16' 0.1", 16.2'
4.88 m
Height 7', 7.1', 7' 1.4"
2.17 m
Width

8.9', 8' 11.5"
2.73 m

Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 12.5"
Ground contact length 130"
Ground pressure 8.1 psi
0.57 kp/cm
Armament  
Main 1: 76.2 mm ZiS-3 M1942-43
1: 76.2 mm
1: 76.2 mm Model 42/43, L/41.5
1: 76 mm ZiS-3
Secondary  
MG 7.62 mm MG
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 62
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 25
Front: 1"@50°
Side: 16
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Superstructure Front 0.4" - 0.6"
Superstructure Sides  
Superstructure Rear  
Superstructure Top  
Engine (Make / Model) 2: GAZ
2: GAZ 203
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Water
Cylinders 2x6
Capacity  
Net HP 70 each
140
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) Constant mesh
4 forward, 1 reverse
Steering Clutch brake
Steering ratio  
Starter Electric
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline
Octane  
Quantity 116 gallons
Road consumption 2.4 mpg
Cross country consumption 1.6 mpg
Performance  
Traverse 32°
Speed - Road 28 mph
45 kph
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 280 miles
450 km
Range - Cross Country 185 miles
Turning radius  
Elevation limits -3° to +25°
Fording depth 2' 11"
0.89 m
Trench crossing 6.5', 10' 2.8"
3.12 m
Vertical obstacle 2' 2", 2' 3.6"
0.7 m
Climbing ability 25° (47%) slope
Suspension (Type) Torsion bar
Wheels each side 6
Return rollers each side 3
Tracks (Type) Dry pin
Length  
Width 11.75"
Diameter  
Number of links 89
Pitch 4.5"
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 7.9'
  SU-76 1943
Crew 4
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 11.2 tons
Length  
Height 2.2 m
Width 2.74 m
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 0.3 m
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Armament  
Main 76 mm ZIS-3 M1942
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms 7.62 mm PPSch-41 machine pistol
Quantity  
Main 60
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm)  
Hull Front, Upper 35
Hull Front, Lower 26-35
Hull Sides, Upper 15
Hull Sides, Lower 10-16
Hull Rear 10-16
Hull Top 10
Hull Bottom 10
Superstructure Front 35
Superstructure Sides 15
Superstructure Rear 15
Superstructure Top open
Engine (Make / Model) 2: GAZ-203
Bore / stroke 4 stroke
Cooling  
Cylinders 2 x I-6
Capacity  
Net HP 2 x 85@3,600 rpm
Power to weight ratio 15.2 HP/ton
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity 400-420 liters
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse  
Speed - Road 45 kph
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 250 km
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth 0.9 m
Trench crossing 1.6-2 m
Vertical obstacle 0.65 m
Climbing ability 24°
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  
  SU-76 1944
Crew 4
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 11,200 kg
11.02 tons
Length 5 m
16' 5"
Height 2.2 m
7' 3"
Width 2.74 m
9'
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Armament  
Main  
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main  
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm)  
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Superstructure Front  
Superstructure Sides  
Superstructure Rear  
Superstructure Top  
Engine (Make / Model)  
Bore / stroke  
Cooling  
Cylinders  
Capacity  
Net HP  
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse  
Speed - Road 44 kph
27 mph
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 265 km
165 miles
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth  
Trench crossing  
Vertical obstacle  
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  
  SU-76M
Crew 4
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 10 tons
Length 5 m
Height 6' 11"
2.1 m
Width 2.7 m
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Armament  
Main  
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 60
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm)  
Hull Front, Upper 35
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 16
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 16
Hull Top 0-10
Hull Bottom 10
Superstructure Front  
Superstructure Sides  
Superstructure Rear  
Superstructure Top  
Engine (Make / Model)  
Bore / stroke  
Cooling  
Cylinders  
Capacity  
Net HP  
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity 420 liters
92 gallons
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse  
Speed - Road  
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 320 km
199 miles
Range - Cross Country 190 km
118 miles
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth  
Trench crossing  
Vertical obstacle  
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  

Sources:

  1. Russian Tanks of World War II Stalin's Armored Might, by Tim Bean & Will Fowler, 2002
  2. Russian Tanks and Armored Vehicles 1917-1945, by Wolfgang Fleischer, 1999
  3. The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles - The Comprehensive Guide to Over 900 Armored Fighting Vehicles From 1915 to the Present Day, General Editor: Christopher F. Foss, 2002
  4. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Chris Bishop, 1998
  5. Armored Fighting Vehicles, 300 of the World's Greatest Military Vehicles, Philip Trewhitt, 1999
  6. Tank Data, Aberdeen Proving Grounds Series, 1968?
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