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Soviet Union's T-70 light tank

Photos

T-70 light tank:
Soviet Union's T-70 Light Tank
Aberdeen Tank Museum

T-70 light tank:
Soviet Union's T-70 Light Tank
Aberdeen Tank Museum

Design

The T-70 was designed by, N. A. Astrov, who wanted to create a light tank that had more armor, a larger gun, and better cross country capabilities than the T-60.

Though the T-70 was a decent design, many felt it wasn't an improvement over the T-60.

The turret was place on the left side. Two engines were mounted in tandem on the right side. Each engine drove a track. The differential and main clutch were united with the engines in one block. The T-70's idler was in the rear and the power in the front.

In September 1942, strengthened running gear was installed. The tracks were widened to 300 mm, and the road wheels and return rollers were made wider. The drive wheels and drive shafts were improved.

Main Armament

The 45 mm gun fired a 3.2 lb APHE shell at a muzzle velocity of 2,500'/sec.

Crew

The turret could only hold one man, the commander who also was the loader and gunner for the 45 mm gun. There were some attempts to install an automatic loader for the 45 mm but these were unsuccessful.

The driver had an armored visor installed.

Crews didn't like the tank as its fuel tanks were easy to ignite.

Engine

Starting in September 1943 the T-70s started to receive the GAZ-203 engine (85 HP).

Production

In March 1942 the T-70 was accepted for production.

Factories No. 37 and No. 38 at the Gorki Automobile Works produced the tanks and were sometimes built alongside the T-60s.

  • T-70: >8,000, 8,226, 8,266
    • Manufacturer: Soviet arsenals
    • Production: March 1942 - October 1943, ? - October 1943, ? - 1943
      • 1942: 4,883
      • 1943: 3,343

Variants

  • T-70 (Model 1942): January 1942 started to replace T-60. Some chassis used to mount 1 or 2 SU-37 AA guns. Rear of turret is rounded.
  • T-70A (Model 1943): In September 1943 armor was increased and more powerful engines. Rear of turret was squared off. Production ceased in October 1943.
  • SU-12, SU-76: Factory No. 92 in Gorki and No. 38 in Kirov developed a self-propelled version of the T-70 designed by the bureaus of Generals Petrov and Grabin. It was lengthened and widened. It was to mount the 76.2 mm ZIS-3 divisional cannon. In December 1942 it was redesignated the SU-76.

Usage

The T-70s were primarily used for infantry support and reconnaissance.

Kursk

Of the 870 Soviet tanks at Prokhorovka, 261 of them were T-70s.

Specifications

  T-70
Crew Commander, driver
2
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 20,608 lb
9.05 tons, 9.2 tons, 10 tons, 10.1 tons
9,367 kg
Length 14' 0.9", 14' 1", 15.28'
4.29 m, 4.42 m
Height 6.78', 6' 8", 6' 8.3", 7.5'
2.04 m, 2.08 m
Width 7" 7.3", 7' 8", 7.68'
2.32 m, 2.47 m
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 12"
0.3 m
Ground contact length 10' 3"
Ground pressure 0.7 kg/cm2
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 45 mm L/46
45 mm L/46 A/TK
45 mm
Secondary  
MG 7.62 mm MG
MG
7.62 mm DT MG
MG - coaxial 7.62 mm MG
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 66 - 70, 70, 90, 94
Secondary  
MG 945
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 10 - 60
Hull Front, Upper 1.37-1.77"@0°
35 - 40, 45
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 0.6"@0°
16, 45
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 1"@0°, 35
Hull Top 10
Hull Bottom 10
Turret Front 1.37"@0°
10 - 60, 60
Turret Sides 1.37"@0°
35
Turret Rear 35
Turret Top 10
Engine (Make / Model) GAZ 203
2: GAZ-202
2: 215-202
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Water
Cylinders 2 x 6
Capacity  
Net HP 2 x 70
140
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) 4 forward, 1 reverse
Steering Clutch brake
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline
Octane  
Quantity 96.8 gallons, 116 gallons, 127 gallons
480 liters
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 21 mph, 28 mph, 32 mph
45 kph
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 223.7 miles, 279 miles, 280 miles
360 km
Range - Cross Country 186 miles
180 km
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth 2' 3.6", 3'
0.7 m, 0.9 m
Trench crossing 5' 1", 10' 2.8"
3.12 m
Vertical obstacle 2' 2", 2' 3.6"
0.7 m
Climbing ability 34° slope
Suspension (Type) Torsion Bar
Christie type coil spring torsion arm
Wheels each side 5
Return rollers each side 3
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width 11", 1' 5.5"
260 mm, 300 mm
Diameter  
Number of links 91
Pitch  
Tire tread Rubber
Track centers/tread 62.5"
  T-70A
Crew 2
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 9 tons, 10 tons
9,200 kg
Length 14' 1", 15.48'
4.29 m
Height 6.66', 6' 8"
2.04 m
Width 7' 7", 8.1'
2.32 m
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length 10' 3"
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 45 mm L/46
45 mm L/46 A/TK
Secondary  
MG MG
MG - coaxial  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 94
Secondary  
MG 1,008
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 10 - 45
Hull Front, Upper 35 - 45
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 16
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top 10
Hull Bottom 10
Turret Front 10 - 70
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) 2: GAZ-202
GAZ-203
2: GAZ-203
Bore / stroke  
Cooling  
Cylinders 2 x 6
Capacity  
Net HP 2 x 85
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road

28 mph
45 kph

Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 260 miles
Range - Cross Country 175 miles
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth  
Trench crossing  
Vertical obstacle  
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width 1' 5.5"
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  
  T-70 1942
Crew 2
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 9.2 tons, 9.79 tons
9,950 kg
Length 15' 2"
4.29 m, 4.66 m
Height 6' 9"
2.05 m, 2.1 m
Width 7' 8"
2.42 m, 2.52 m
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 0.3 m
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure 0.67 kg/cm2
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 45 mm 1938
45 mm
Secondary  
MG 7.62 mm MG
MG - coaxial 7.62 mm DT MG
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 70-90
Secondary  
MG 945
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm)  
Hull Front, Upper 45
35-45
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 45
16
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 15, 35
Hull Top 10
10-15
Hull Bottom 10
10-15
Turret Front 35, 60
Turret Sides 35
Turret Rear 35
Turret Top 10
Engine (Make / Model) 2: GAZ-202
Bore / stroke 4 stroke
Cooling  
Cylinders 2 x I-6
Capacity  
Net HP 2 x 70@3,400 rpm
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity 440 liters
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 31 mph
45 kph, 50 kph
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 280 miles, 224 miles
350 km, 450 km, 360 km
Range - Cross Country 112 miles
180 km
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth 0.9 m
Trench crossing 1.7 m
Vertical obstacle 0.65 m
Climbing ability 35°
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  
  T-70 1943
Crew 2
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 9.8-10 tons
Length 4.42 m
Height 2.08 m
Width 2.47 m
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 0.3 m
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure 0.51 kg/cm2
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 45 mm 1938
Secondary  
MG  
MG - coaxial 7.62 mm DT MG
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 70-90
Secondary  
MG 945
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm)  
Hull Front, Upper 35-45
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 16
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 16
Hull Top 10-15
Hull Bottom 10-15
Turret Front 60
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear 35
Turret Top 10
Engine (Make / Model) GAZ-203
Bore / stroke 4 stroke
Cooling  
Cylinders 2 x I-6
Capacity  
Net HP 2 x 85@3,600 rpm
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity 480 liters
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 45 kph
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 250-300 km
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth 0.9 m
Trench crossing 1.7 m
Vertical obstacle 0.65 m
Climbing ability 35°
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  

Sources:

  1. Russian Tanks of World War II Stalin's Armored Might, by Tim Bean & Will Fowler, 2002
  2. Russian Tanks and Armored Vehicles 1917-1945, by Wolfgang Fleischer, 1999
  3. The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles - The Comprehensive Guide to Over 900 Armored Fighting Vehicles From 1915 to the Present Day, General Editor: Christopher F. Foss, 2002
  4. Panzer Truppen The Complete Guide to the Creation and Combat Employment of Germany's Tank Force 1943-1945, Thomas L. Jentz, 1996
  5. Tanks of the World, 1915-1945, Peter Chamberlain, Chris Ellis, 1972
  6. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Chris Bishop, 1998
  7. Airfix Magazine Guide 22 Russian Tanks of World War 2, John Milsom and Steve Zaloga, 1977
  8. Tanks of World War II, Duncan Crow, 1979
  9. Tank Data 2, Aberdeen Proving Grounds Series, E. J. Hoffschmidt and W. H. Tantum IV, 1969
  10. Armored Fighting Vehicles, 300 of the World's Greatest Military Vehicles, Philip Trewhitt, 1999
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