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Soviet Union's T-60 light tank
Nickname: BM-2 (Brtskaya Mogila na Dovoikh) "a brother's grave for two"

Photos

T-60 light tank:
Soviet Union's T-60 Light Tank
Aberdeen Tank Museum

Design

After the heavy losses of tanks after the invasion of Russia by Germany there was a great need for producing large numbers of tanks.1,2 N. A. Astrov, of Zavod Nr 37, lead a design bureau in Moscow that altered the T-40.1,2,6 The basic design was done in 15 days.1

An increase in armor and armament was needed at the expense of keeping its amphibious capability.1,2

Main Armament

Initially it was designed for a 45 mm gun, but this proved to powerful for the turret.2 B. Shpital'n / Spitalny and Komaritzky had come up with the fully automatic 20 mm SchWak aircraft gun.2 The turret had eight sides.1

  Type Weight Penetration
1,000 m
20 mm SchWak2 Incendiary2 0.096 kg2 24 mm2

Crew

The driver was placed in the center in the front of the hull.

Armor

The first models had riveted armor but later T-60s had welded armor.2 The hull was modified to have larger armor plates at sharper angles for better protection.2

Engine

The T-60 was so underpowered it couldn't keep up with the T-34s going cross country.6

Fighting Compartments

In the front of the T-60's hull contained the engine, power train, and controls for the driver.2 The fuel tanks were located in the rear of the hull.2

The turret was offset to the left with the engine offset to the right.2

Not Well Liked

When talking to Josef Stalin on September 17, 1942, General M. J. Katukov said:

"I can't find much good about the T-60. Of course it has automatic weapons, but only a 20 mm gun. It would not be up to a serious fight against tanks. Besides, it has too little ground clearance and is completely useless in mud or snow. In the fighting around Moscow we had to tow these tanks."2

Variants

  • T-60 (Model 1941): Issued to reconnaissance units and infantry formations for support in combat. Some chassis were converted to carry Katyushka rocket launchers or tow 57 mm antitank guns. Had solid disc wheels.1
  • T-60A (Model 1942): Increased armor.6 Had spoked1/solid6 wheels. Started to appear in early 1942.6
  • KT2, A-T2, or A-402: In 1942 a vehicle chassis was fitted with wings, a double tail, and was towed by a TB-3 bomber as a glider.2
  • OSU-762: At Factory No. 38 a design bureau was told to design a light self-propelled tank based on the T-60 chassis.2 The were fitted with the 76.2 mm ZIS-3 (1942) divisional cannon.2 Prototypes were built but when production of the T-60 was halted the T-70 was converted into the SU-76.2
  • BM-8-362: It had 36 launching rails installed.2 It fired 82 mm rockets up to 5,500 meters.2
  • T-60 Anti-Aircraft:

Usage

The T-60 was primarily assigned to reconnaissance units and infantry units. Some were formed into independent tank battalions which had:2

  • 1 heavy company (KV tanks)2
  • 1 medium company (T-34 tanks)2
  • 2 light companies (T-60 tanks)2

Some vehicles were used at towing tractors for 76.2 mm divisional cannons in the artillery regiments of some rifle divisions.2

Specifications

  T-607
Crew 21,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 12,700 lb, 11,354 lb
5.5 tons4, 5.75 tons5,7, 6 tons9, 6.3 tons3, 6.4 tons6
6,400 kg3
Length 12' 5"9, 13.1'5,7, 13' 5.9"6, 13' 6"3, 14' 1"
4 m4, 4.11 m3,6
Height 5' 8"3, 5' 8.5"6, 5' 9"7,9, 6' 2.5", 6.65'5
1.74 m3,6, 1.8 m4
Width 7' 6"5,7, 7' 8"3,9, 8' 0.75"
2.3 m3, 2.35 m4
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 1'
0.3 m4
Ground contact length 7' 6"7
Ground pressure 6.55 psi, 6.83 psi
0.48 (kg/cm2)4
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 20 mm ShVAK1,3,7
20 mm4,5,6,8
20 mm Shvak aircraft automatic gun9
Secondary  
MG MG4,5,7
7.62 mm MG6
7.62 mm DT MG9
MG - coaxial 7.62 mm DT MG1,3
7.62 mm MG8
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 7807
Secondary  
MG 7804, 9457
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 7 - 253,5
208
Hull Front, Upper 0.75"@0°9, 14 - 204,7
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 154,7
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 0.4"@0°9, 10-134
Hull Top 7 - 107, 104
Hull Bottom 7 - 104,7
Turret Front 0.75"@0°9, 7 - 157, 154
Turret Sides 0.75"@0°9, 154
Turret Rear 154
Turret Top 74
Engine (Make / Model) GAZ-2027, GAZ 2033,6
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Water4,9
Cylinders 64,9,7
Capacity  
Net HP 85@3,600 rpm4
707, 855,9
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) 4 forward, 1 reverse4,9
Steering Clutch brake9
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline5,6,7,9
Octane  
Quantity 84.5 gallons
320 liters4
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°9
Manual9
Speed - Road 27 mph5, 27.3 mph, 27.5 mph9, 27.9 mph, 28 mph3,6,7
44 kph4, 45 kph3,6
Speed - Cross Country 18.6 mph
Range - Road 270 miles9, 280 miles3,6, 382 miles, 384 miles7
450 km3,6, 615 km4
Range - Cross Country 197 miles7
315 km4
Turning radius 20' 6"
6.2 m4
Elevation limits +40°
Fording depth 2' 10"
0.8 m4
Trench crossing 6' 1"6
1.85 m6
Vertical obstacle 1' 9.3"6
0.54 m6
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type) Torsion Bars4
Christie type coil spring torsion arm9
Wheels each side 44,9
Return rollers each side 39
Tracks (Type) Steel, skeleton, dry pin9
Length  
Width 7"7, 1' 5.5"9
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tires  
Track centers/tread 260 mm4
  T-60 19412
Crew 22
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 5.5-5.8 tons2
Length 4.1 m2
Height 1.75 m2
Width 2.35 m2
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 0.3 m2
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure 0.48 (kg/cm2)2
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main

20 mm SchWak 19412

Secondary  
MG  
MG - coaxial 7.62 mm DT MG2
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 750 - 7802
Secondary  
MG 945-1,0002
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm)  
Hull Front, Upper 14 - 202
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 152
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 10 - 132
Hull Top 7 - 102
Hull Bottom 7 - 102
Turret Front 152
Turret Sides 152
Turret Rear 152
Turret Top 72
Engine (Make / Model) GAZ 2022
Bore / stroke 4 stroke2
Cooling  
Cylinders 62
Capacity  
Net HP 70@3,400 rpm2
Power to weight ratio 12 HP/ton2
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) 4 forward, 1 reverse
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity 320 liters2
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 44 kph2
Speed - Cross Country 18.6 mph
Range - Road 315-614 km2
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth 0.87 m2
Trench crossing 1.7 m2
Vertical obstacle 0.6 m2
Climbing ability 28 - 29°2
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tires  
Track centers/tread  
  T-60A7 , T-60 19421,2
Crew 21,2,7
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 6.4 tons2,7
5,150 kg1
5.07 tons1
Length 13.65'7, 14' 1"1
4.1 m2, 4.29 m1
Height 5.85'7 , 6' 2"1
1.78 m2, 1.89 m1
Width 7.66'7, 8' 1"1
2.35 m2, 2.46 m1
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 0.3 m2
Ground contact length 7' 6"7
Ground pressure 0.46 (kg/cm2)2
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main

20 mm1
20 mm SchWak 19412
20 mm ShVAK7

Secondary  
MG MG7
1: 7.62 mm MG1
MG - coaxial 7.62 mm DT MG2
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 7802,7
Secondary  
MG 9457
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 0.78"1
201
Hull Front, Upper 351,2,7
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 251,2,7
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 251
Hull Top 131,2,7
Hull Bottom 131,2,7
Turret Front 251,2,7
Turret Sides 252, 151
Turret Rear 252, 151
Turret Top 71,2
Engine (Make / Model) GAZ-2027, GAZ 2032
Bore / stroke 4 stroke2
Cooling  
Cylinders 62,7
Capacity  
Net HP 857, 85@3,400 rpm2
Power to weight ratio 10.9 HP/ton2
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) 4 forward, 1 reverse
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline7
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 25 mph7, 38 mph1
42 kph2, 45 kph1
Speed - Cross Country 18.6 mph
Range - Road 280 miles, 375 miles7, 380 miles1
315-614 km2, 450 km, 615 km1
Range - Cross Country 155 miles1, 188 miles7
250 km1
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth 0.87 m2
Trench crossing 1.7 m2
Vertical obstacle 0.6 m2
Climbing ability 28 - 29°2
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width 7"7
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tires  
Track centers/tread  

Sources:

  1. Russian Tanks of World War II Stalin's Armored Might, by Tim Bean & Will Fowler, 2002
  2. Russian Tanks and Armored Vehicles 1917-1945, by Wolfgang Fleischer, 1999
  3. The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles - The Comprehensive Guide to Over 900 Armored Fighting Vehicles From 1915 to the Present Day, General Editor: Christopher F. Foss, 2002
  4. Panzer Truppen The Complete Guide to the Creation and Combat Employment of Germany's Tank Force 1933-1942, Thomas L. Jentz, 1996
  5. Tanks of the World, 1915-1945, Peter Chamberlain, Chris Ellis, 1972
  6. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Chris Bishop, 1998
  7. Airfix Magazine Guide 22 Russian Tanks of World War 2, John Milsom and Steve Zaloga, 1977
  8. Tanks of World War II, Duncan Crow, 1979
  9. Tank Data 2, Aberdeen Proving Grounds Series, E. J. Hoffschmidt and W. H. Tantum IV, 1969
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