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Soviet Union's Flag

Soviet Union's T-37 light tanks

Design

Carden-Lloyd amphibian tanks (A4E11) arrived in the Soviet Union in 1931. Engineers at Zavod Nr 37, directed by N. A. Astrov, developed several prototypes. It was called the "Morskoi 33" or "Malyi Tank 33" (T-33). It's performance in water wasn't acceptable and a new design appeared in 1932 called the T-41. It to turned out to be unacceptable and in 1933 another model was developed and it was the T-37. On August 11, 1933, it was accepted by the Red Army after trials. Another group of designers led by N. N. Koziryev also designed a variant, the T-37A.

It had the turret mounted on the right side and the tracks were improved. A ship's propeller was added that allowed for the vehicle to move backwards as well as forwards in the water. Late models had a cupola for the commander.

The T-37 Type A had a 7.62 mm DT 1929 MG installed. It had a range of 800 meters and could fire 600 rounds per minute. The velocity of the bullets was 840 m/sec.

Amphibious

There were two pontoons located above the tracks. Balsa wood floats encased in sheet metal were added to the T-37 to make it more buoyant.

Engine

The engine used in the T-37 was the GAZ AA.

Prototype

In 1933, over the course of eleven days, seven T-37s traveled 700 miles / 1,126 km of which 600 miles / 965 km were in water.

Production

  • T-32:
    • Produced: 1932
  • T-37: 1,200
    • Production: 1933 - 1936, Late 1933 - ?, ? - 1938
  • T-41:
    • Produced: 1932

Variants

  • T-33: Prototype. Weighed 3 tons / 3.7 tons. Crew of two. Armament was one 7.62 mm MG. Armor was 7.9 mm / 7 - 9 mm thick. The 63 HP engine propelled it 45 kph.
  • T-41: Prototype. It weighed 3.2 tons with a crew of two. There was a 7.62 mm MG. Armor was 4 - 9 mm thick. The T-41 was propelled by a 40 HP engine and could go 36 kph on land and 4 kph in water.
  • T-37 Light Tank: Based on the Vickers Carden-Lloyd. Communicated via flags.
  • T-37A Light Tank: These were a little longer and had floats attached on both sides. Communicated by flags.
  • T-37U Light Tank, T-37TU Light Tank: Tank commanders with hand-rail aerial around hull. The radios were to contact command in the rear.

Usage

In 1935 several models were transported by air by TB-1 and TB-3 bombers. These were used in the occupation of Bessarabia in 1940.

They were issued to armored reconnaissance units and tank battalions of infantry and cavalry units.

These were used against Finland in the winter of 1939-1940 and against the Germans in 1941.

Some of the T-37s were used as light tractors after they had been replaced in front line units.

Captured by the Finns

The Finnish Army was able to use captured T-37s in their forces. By 1944 they were using about 30 T-37 As.

Specifications

  T-37 Light Tank
Crew Commander, driver
2
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 7,040 lb, 7,055 lb
3,000 kg, 3,200 kg
3 tons, 3.15 tons, 3.5 tons
Length w/gun 12' 3.6", 12.25', 12.26', 12' 3",
3.75 m
Length w/o gun 12.26'
Height 5' 6", 5' 11.7", 5.91'
1.82 m
Width 6' 6", 6.51', 6' 10.7", 6' 11"
2 m, 2.1 m
Width over tracks 6.5'
Ground clearance 11.8", 1'
0.3 m
Ground contact length 5.15', 5.91'
Ground pressure 7.54 psi, 7.83 psi
0.53 (kg/cm2)
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 1: 7.62 mm MG
1: MG
1: 7.62 mm DT MG
OR 1: 12.7 mm DShK
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 585
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 4 - 9
3 - 9
Turret: 4 - 6
Hull Front, Upper 4, 9.5, 10
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 7, 10
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 5, 6
Hull Top 4, 5-7
Hull Bottom 4, 5
Turret Front 9, 10
Turret Sides 10
Turret Rear 10
Turret Top 5
Engine (Make / Model) GAZ AA
GAZ (Ford) AA
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Water
Cylinders 4
Capacity  
Net HP 40@2,200 rpm, 40, 65, 65@2,200 rpm
Power to weight ratio 18.5
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) Epicyclic
4 forward, 1 reverse
Steering Simple differential
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline
Octane  
Quantity 22 gallons, 27 gallons
100 liters
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 20 mph, 21.8 mph, 22 mph, 35 mph, 40 mph
35 mph, 35.5 kph, 56.3 kph
Max speed - water 2.5 mph, 4 mph
Speed - Cross Country 15.5 mph, 20 mph
Range - Road 115 miles, 143 miles
185 km
Range - Cross Country 64 miles
115 km
Water radius 12 hours
Turning radius 17' 6", 19.6'
5.3 m
Elevation limits -5° to +5°
Fording depth Amphibious
1.2 m
Trench crossing 5.25', 6' 2"
1.879 m
Vertical obstacle 1.6', 2' 7"
0.787 m
Climbing ability 30° - 40°
Suspension (Type) Coil spring, Horstmann spring coil
Wheels each side 4
Return rollers each side 2
Tracks (Type) Drop forged
Length  
Width 8", 8.26"
210 mm
Diameter  
Number of links 90
Pitch 3.5"
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 5.5'
  T-37 (3-2T) Light Tank
Crew 2
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 3.18 tons
Length w/gun 12.26'
Length w/o gun 12.26'
Height 5.5'
Width 6.51'
Width over tracks 6.5'
Ground clearance 11.8"
Ground contact length 5.15'
Ground pressure 7.5 psi
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 1: 7.62 mm DT MG
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 585
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) Turret: 4 - 6
Hull Front, Upper 9.5
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 7
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 6
Hull Top 4
Hull Bottom 4
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) GAZ (Ford) AA
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Water
Cylinders 4
Capacity  
Net HP 40@3,000 rpm
Power to weight ratio 12.55
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) Epicyclic
4 forward, 1 reverse
Steering Simple differential
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline
Octane  
Quantity 24 gallons
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 26 mph
Max speed - water  
Speed - Cross Country 12 mph
Range - Road 153 miles
Range - Cross Country 72 miles
Water radius  
Turning radius 19.6'
Elevation limits -5° to +5°
Fording depth Amphibious
Trench crossing 5.25'
Vertical obstacle 1.6'
Climbing ability 30° - 40°
Suspension (Type) Horstmann (modified)
Wheels each side 4
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type) Drop forged
Length  
Width 8.26"
Diameter  
Number of links 90
Pitch 3.5"
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 5.5'
  T-37A Light Tank,
T-37 Type A Light Tank
Crew 2
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 3.2 tons, 3.9 tons
Length w/gun 12.26'
3.75 m
Length w/o gun 12.26'
Height 5.91'
1.82 m
Width 6.51'
2 m
Width over tracks 6.5'
Ground clearance 11.8"
0.3 m
Ground contact length 5.15', 5.91'
Ground pressure 9.48 psi
0.55 (kg/cm2)
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 7.62 mm DT MG
7.62 mm DT 1929 MG
OR 12.7 mm DShK
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 585
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) Turret: 4-6
Hull Front, Upper 9, 10
Hull Front, Lower 9
Hull Sides, Upper 9, 10
Hull Sides, Lower 9
Hull Rear 6, 9
Hull Top 4, 5 - 7, 6
Hull Bottom 5 - 7, 6
Turret Front 9
Turret Sides 9
Turret Rear 9
Turret Top 6
Engine (Make / Model) GAZ AA
GAZ (Ford) AA
Bore / stroke 4 stroke
Cooling Water
Cylinders 4
Capacity  
Net HP 40@2,200 rpm, 65, 65@2,200 rpm
Power to weight ratio 17.9
12.5 HP/ton
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) Epicyclic
4 forward, 1 reverse
Steering Simple differential
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline
Octane  
Quantity 22 gallons
100 liters
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 40 mph
36 kpm
Max speed - water 2.5 mph, 4 - 6 kph
Speed - Cross Country 20 mph
Range - Road 115 miles
230 km
Range - Cross Country 60 miles
Water radius  
Turning radius 19.6'
Elevation limits -5° to +5°
Fording depth Amphibious
Trench crossing 5.25'
1.6 m
Vertical obstacle 1.6'
0.5 m
Climbing ability 30° - 40°, 40°
Suspension (Type) Coil spring
Wheels each side 4
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type) Drop forged
Length  
Width 8.26"
Diameter  
Number of links 90
Pitch 3.5"
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 5.5'
  T-37 1934 Light Tank
Crew 2
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 3.15 tons
3,200 kg
Length 3.75 m
12' 4"
Height 1.82 m
5' 11"
Width 2.07 m, 6' 7"
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 7.62 mm MG
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main  
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm)  
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model)  
Bore / stroke  
Cooling  
Cylinders  
Capacity  
Net HP  
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse  
Speed - Road 35 kph
21 mph
Max speed - water  
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 185 km
115 miles
Range - Cross Country  
Water radius  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth  
Trench crossing  
Vertical obstacle  
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  

Sources:

  1. Russian Tanks of World War II Stalin's Armored Might, by Tim Bean & Will Fowler, 2002
  2. Russian Tanks and Armored Vehicles 1917-1945, by Wolfgang Fleischer, 1999
  3. The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles - The Comprehensive Guide to Over 900 Armored Fighting Vehicles From 1915 to the Present Day, General Editor: Christopher F. Foss, 2002
  4. Panzer Truppen The Complete Guide to the Creation and Combat Employment of Germany's Tank Force 1933-1942, Thomas L. Jentz, 1996
  5. Tanks of the World, 1915-1945, Peter Chamberlain, Chris Ellis, 1972
  6. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Chris Bishop, 1998
  7. Tanks of World War II, Duncan Crow, 1979
  8. Russian Tanks 1900-1970, The Complete Illustrated History of Soviet Armoured Theory and Design, John Milsom, 1970
  9. Airfix Magazine Guide 22 Russian Tanks of World War 2, John Milsom and Steve Zaloga, 1977
  10. Armored Fighting Vehicles, 300 of the World's Greatest Military Vehicles, Philip Trewhitt, 1999
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