World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of P-51 Mustang
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of T-34/85
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of Fw-190
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of Churchill
wwiivehicles.com ©2016
Search:
Soviet Union's Flag

Soviet Union's T-37 light tanks

Design

Carden-Lloyd amphibian tanks (A4E11) arrived in the Soviet Union in 1931.6,10 Engineers at Zavod Nr 37, directed by N. A. Astrov, developed several prototypes. It was called the "Morskoi 33" or "Malyi Tank 33" (T-331). It's performance in water wasn't acceptable and a new design appeared in 1932 called the T-41.1 It to turned out to be unacceptable and in 1933 another model was developed and it was the T-37.1 On August 11, 1933, it was accepted by the Red Army after trials. Another group of designers led by N. N. Koziryev also designed a variant, the T-37A.

It had the turret mounted on the right side and the tracks were improved. A ship's propeller was added that allowed for the vehicle to move backwards as well as forwards in the water. Late models had a cupola for the commander.

The T-37 Type A had a 7.62 mm DT 1929 MG installed.2 It had a range of 800 meters and could fire 600 rounds per minute.2 The velocity of the bullets was 840 m/sec.2

Amphibious

There were two pontoons located above the tracks.6 Balsa wood floats encased in sheet metal were added to the T-37 to make it more buoyant.1

Engine

The engine used in the T-37 was the GAZ AA.6

Prototype

In 1933, over the course of eleven days, seven T-37s traveled 700 miles / 1,126 km of which 600 miles / 965 km were in water.1

Production

  • T-32:
    • Produced: 19329
  • T-37: 1,2001,9
    • Production: 1933 - 19361, Late 1933 - ?6,10, ? - 19387
  • T-41:
    • Produced: 19329

Variants

  • T-33: Prototype.1,9 Weighed 3 tons2 / 3.7 tons.9 Crew of two.2,9 Armament was one 7.62 mm MG.2,9 Armor was 7.9 mm / 7 - 9 mm2 thick.9 The 63 HP engine propelled it 45 kph.9
  • T-41: Prototype.1,9 It weighed 3.2 tons with a crew of two.9 There was a 7.62 mm MG.9 Armor was 4 - 9 mm thick.9 The T-41 was propelled by a 40 HP engine and could go 36 kph on land and 4 kph in water.9
  • T-37 Light Tank: Based on the Vickers Carden-Lloyd.1,10 Communicated via flags.8
  • T-37A Light Tank: These were a little longer and had floats attached on both sides.2 Communicated by flags.8
  • T-37U Light Tank9, T-37TU Light Tank1,6,9: Tank commanders with hand-rail aerial around hull.1,6,9 The radios were to contact command in the rear.6

Usage

In 1935 several models were transported by air by TB-1 and TB-3 bombers. These were used in the occupation of Bessarabia in 1940.

They were issued to armored reconnaissance units and tank battalions of infantry and cavalry units.1

These were used against Finland in the winter of 1939-1940 and against the Germans in 1941.

Some of the T-37s were used as light tractors after they had been replaced in front line units.10

Captured by the Finns

The Finnish Army was able to use captured T-37s in their forces.2 By 1944 they were using about 30 T-37 As.2

Specifications

  T-37 Light Tank
Crew Commander, driver
23,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 7,040 lb10, 7,055 lb6
3,000 kg6, 3,200 kg3,10
3 tons7, 3.15 tons3, 3.5 tons4,5,8,9
Length w/gun 12' 3.6"6,10, 12.25'5, 12.26'8,9, 12' 3"3,
3.75 m3,4,6,10
Length w/o gun 12.26'8
Height 5' 6"3,5, 5' 11.7"6,10, 5.91'8,9
1.82 m3,4,6,10
Width 6' 6"5, 6.51'8,9, 6' 10.7"6,10, 6' 11"3
2 m4, 2.1 m3,6,10
Width over tracks 6.5'8
Ground clearance 11.8"8, 1'
0.3 m4
Ground contact length 5.15'8, 5.91'9
Ground pressure 7.54 psi, 7.83 psi8
0.53 (kg/cm2)4
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 1: 7.62 mm MG5,6,7,10
1: MG4
1: 7.62 mm DT MG2,3,8,9
OR 1: 12.7 mm DShK8,9
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 5852,4,9
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 4 - 95
3 - 96,10
Turret: 4 - 68
Hull Front, Upper 43, 9.58,9, 104
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 78,9, 104
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 54, 68
Hull Top 48,9, 5-74
Hull Bottom 48,9, 54
Turret Front 93, 104
Turret Sides 104
Turret Rear 104
Turret Top 54
Engine (Make / Model) GAZ AA2,3,6,9,10
GAZ (Ford) AA8
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Water4,8
Cylinders 44,8,9
Capacity  
Net HP 40@2,200 rpm4, 405,6,7,10, 659, 65@2,200 rpm8
Power to weight ratio 18.58
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) Epicyclic8
4 forward, 1 reverse4,8
Steering Simple differential8
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline4,5,6,10
Octane  
Quantity 22 gallons8, 27 gallons
100 liters2,4
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°8
Speed - Road 20 mph5, 21.8 mph, 22 mph7, 35 mph6,10, 40 mph8,9
35 mph3, 35.5 kph4, 56.3 kph3,6,10
Max speed - water 2.5 mph8, 4 mph7
Speed - Cross Country 15.5 mph, 20 mph8
Range - Road 115 miles3,6,10, 143 miles8,9
185 km3,4,6,10
Range - Cross Country 64 miles8,9
115 km4
Water radius 12 hours
Turning radius 17' 6", 19.6'8
5.3 m4
Elevation limits -5° to +5°8
Fording depth Amphibious2,8,10
1.2 m4
Trench crossing 5.25'8, 6' 2"10
1.879 m10
Vertical obstacle 1.6'8, 2' 7"10
0.787 m10
Climbing ability 30° - 40°8
Suspension (Type) Coil spring4,8, Horstmann spring coil1
Wheels each side 44,8
Return rollers each side 2
Tracks (Type) Drop forged8
Length  
Width 8", 8.26"8,9
210 mm4
Diameter  
Number of links 908
Pitch 3.5"8
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 5.5'8
  T-37 (3-2T) Light Tank
Crew 28
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 3.18 tons8
Length w/gun 12.26'8
Length w/o gun 12.26'8
Height 5.5'8
Width 6.51'8
Width over tracks 6.5'8
Ground clearance 11.8"8
Ground contact length 5.15'8
Ground pressure 7.5 psi8
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 1: 7.62 mm DT MG8
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 5858
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) Turret: 4 - 68
Hull Front, Upper 9.58
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 78
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 68
Hull Top 48
Hull Bottom 48
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model) GAZ (Ford) AA8
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Water8
Cylinders 48
Capacity  
Net HP 40@3,000 rpm8
Power to weight ratio 12.558
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) Epicyclic8
4 forward, 1 reverse8
Steering Simple differential8
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline8
Octane  
Quantity 24 gallons8
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°8
Speed - Road 26 mph8
Max speed - water  
Speed - Cross Country 12 mph8
Range - Road 153 miles8
Range - Cross Country 72 miles8
Water radius  
Turning radius 19.6'8
Elevation limits -5° to +5°8
Fording depth Amphibious8
Trench crossing 5.25'8
Vertical obstacle 1.6'8
Climbing ability 30° - 40°8
Suspension (Type) Horstmann (modified)8
Wheels each side 48
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type) Drop forged8
Length  
Width 8.26"8
Diameter  
Number of links 908
Pitch 3.5"8
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 5.5'8
  T-37A Light Tank,
T-37 Type A Light Tank
Crew 22,9
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 3.2 tons2, 3.9 tons8,9
Length w/gun 12.26'8,9
3.75 m2
Length w/o gun 12.26'8
Height 5.91'8,9
1.82 m2
Width 6.51'8,9
2 m2
Width over tracks 6.5'8
Ground clearance 11.8"8
0.3 m2
Ground contact length 5.15'8, 5.91'9
Ground pressure 9.48 psi8
0.55 (kg/cm2)2
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 7.62 mm DT MG8,9
7.62 mm DT 1929 MG2
OR 12.7 mm DShK8,9
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 5852,8,9
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) Turret: 4-68
Hull Front, Upper 92, 108,9
Hull Front, Lower 92
Hull Sides, Upper 92, 108,9
Hull Sides, Lower 92
Hull Rear 68, 92
Hull Top 48, 5 - 79, 62
Hull Bottom 5 - 78,9, 62
Turret Front 92
Turret Sides 92
Turret Rear 92
Turret Top 62
Engine (Make / Model) GAZ AA2,9
GAZ (Ford) AA8
Bore / stroke 4 stroke2
Cooling Water8
Cylinders 42,8,9
Capacity  
Net HP 40@2,200 rpm2, 659, 65@2,200 rpm8
Power to weight ratio 17.98
12.5 HP/ton2
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) Epicyclic8
4 forward, 1 reverse8
Steering Simple differential8
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Gasoline2
Octane  
Quantity 22 gallons8
100 liters2
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°8
Speed - Road 40 mph8,9
36 kpm2
Max speed - water 2.5 mph8, 4 - 6 kph2
Speed - Cross Country 20 mph8
Range - Road 115 miles8,9
230 km2
Range - Cross Country 60 miles8,9
Water radius  
Turning radius 19.6'8
Elevation limits -5° to +5°8
Fording depth Amphibious2,8
Trench crossing 5.25'8
1.6 m2
Vertical obstacle 1.6'8
0.5 m2
Climbing ability 30° - 40°8, 40°2
Suspension (Type) Coil spring8
Wheels each side 48
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type) Drop forged8
Length  
Width 8.26"8,9
Diameter  
Number of links 908
Pitch 3.5"8
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 5.5'8
  T-37 1934 Light Tank
Crew 21
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 3.15 tons1
3,200 kg1
Length 3.75 m1
12' 4"1
Height 1.82 m1
5' 11"1
Width 2.07 m1, 6' 7"1
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 7.62 mm MG1
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main  
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm)  
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model)  
Bore / stroke  
Cooling  
Cylinders  
Capacity  
Net HP  
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse  
Speed - Road 35 kph1
21 mph1
Max speed - water  
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 185 km1
115 miles1
Range - Cross Country  
Water radius  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth  
Trench crossing  
Vertical obstacle  
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  

Sources:

  1. Russian Tanks of World War II Stalin's Armored Might, by Tim Bean & Will Fowler, 2002
  2. Russian Tanks and Armored Vehicles 1917-1945, by Wolfgang Fleischer, 1999
  3. The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles - The Comprehensive Guide to Over 900 Armored Fighting Vehicles From 1915 to the Present Day, General Editor: Christopher F. Foss, 2002
  4. Panzer Truppen The Complete Guide to the Creation and Combat Employment of Germany's Tank Force 1933-1942, Thomas L. Jentz, 1996
  5. Tanks of the World, 1915-1945, Peter Chamberlain, Chris Ellis, 1972
  6. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Chris Bishop, 1998
  7. Tanks of World War II, Duncan Crow, 1979
  8. Russian Tanks 1900-1970, The Complete Illustrated History of Soviet Armoured Theory and Design, John Milsom, 1970
  9. Airfix Magazine Guide 22 Russian Tanks of World War 2, John Milsom and Steve Zaloga, 1977
  10. Armored Fighting Vehicles, 300 of the World's Greatest Military Vehicles, Philip Trewhitt, 1999
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site