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Japan's Type 95 Ha-Go, Type 95 Ke-Go, Type 3 Ke-Ri, Type 4 Ke-Nu, Type 5 Ke-Ho light tanks

Photos

Type 95 Ha-Go light tank:
Japan's Type 95 Ha-Go light tank

Type 95 Ha-Go light tank:
Japan's Type 95 Ha-Go light tank

Design

A design study for a new light tank was conducted by the Cavalry and Infantry schools and was completed in July 1933.4 It was to weigh 7.7 tons / 7 metric tons.4 The main armament was to be 37 mm.4,5 In July 1933, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. began the design work for a new light tank.3,5 It was to have a top speed of 25 mph and have 12 mm armor.5 The same diesel engine that was used in the Type 89B was to be used.4

The Type 89 Medium was too slow for mechanized operations so a faster model was needed.

These were tested in China and Japan. Mitsubishi named them the HA-GO, and the army KE-GO.3

Crew

The driver of the Type 95 was on the right in the front with the hull machine gunner on the left.3,8 The turret was to the left of center which housed the commander.3,8

The fighting compartment was lined with asbestos to protect against the heat of the sides of the hull.3

Construction

The Type 95 was manufactured with riveted construction.3

Machine Gun Placement

A machine gun was installed in the rear of the turret, facing the 5 o'clock position.5

Main Armament

Round Velocity Weight Penetration Range
500 m
Type 1 AP4 2,300'/sec4
701 m/sec4
0.67 kg4 40 mm @ 90°4 1.8 miles4
2.9 km4
AP6 1,900'/sec6 1.54 kg6    
  1,886'/sec5, 2,215'/sec5      

Prototype

A prototype was built by Mitsubishi and started trials in June 1934.3,4,5 The Independent Mixed Brigade in Manchuria received it for further testing.4 It was found to perform very well.4

The second prototype was completed in June 1935 / November 19355 by Mitsubishi with some modifications based on the first prototype's trials.4

Production

  • Type 95 Ha-Go: >1,1003,7, 1,250, 1,3508
    • Manufacturer: Mitsubishi3 (1,164), Dowa Jidosha6
    • Cost: ¥98,0004
    • Production: ? - 19433,7, 1935 - 19438
  • Type 3 Ke-Ri: 1,300
    • Production: 1935 - 1943

Variants

  • Type 95 Ha-Go, Type 3 Ke-Ri, Type 4 Ke-Nu:
  • Type 35 (Special): In Manchuria some had their suspensions modified to help improve the ride crossing terrain.
  • Type 3 Ke-Ri: 57mm Model 97 gun installed.2,3 Cramped turret.3 A few test vehicles were produced in 1943.
  • Type 4 Ke-Nu: Used turret of Type 97 Medium tank to alleviate cramped turret.3 19,000 lb. 100 converted in 1944. Saw little service.
  • Type 5 Ke-Ho: Designed in 1942 and only 1 prototype built.2
  • Type 2 Ka-Mi: Amphibious.7,8

Usage

Used on all fronts. Were used as dug in pillboxes on Iwo Jima.

Saipan

12 Type 95 arrived at Saipan in April 1944, with the 9th Tank Regiment commanded by Colonel Takashi Goto.

Manchuria

Were issued to the mechanized brigades, but were found to have problems crossing the kaoliang fields.5 This resulted in the bogie arms getting inverted and a small roller attached between the pairs of bogie wheels.5

Specifications

  Type 95 Ha-Go
Crew 31,2,4,6,8, 43,7
Commander4, driver4, hull machine gunner4
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 16,314 lb3, 16,280 lb7
7,400 kg1,3,7,8
7.28 tons1,8, 7.3 tons5, 7.4 tons2, 8.1 tons4, 8.5 tons6
7.4 metric tons4
Length 4.08'2 (exactly as in source), 14' 1"5, 14.3'6, 14' 4"3,4,7, 14' 5"1,8
4.37 m4, 4.38 m1,3,7,8
Height 7'4, 7' 2"3,7,8, 7' 3"1, 7.25'6, 7' 6"2,5
2.13 m4, 2.18 m1,8, 2.184 m3,7
Width 6.75'2,6, 6' 8"1, 6' 9"3,4,5,7,8
2.057 m3,7, 2.06 m1,4,8
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance 15"4, 15.5"6
0.4 m4
Ground contact length 97"6
Ground pressure 8.7 psi, 8.9 psi6
0.61 kg/cm2
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 1: 37 mm Type 941,3
1: 37 mm2,7,8
1: 37 mm Type 94, L/376
1: 37 mm Type 94 or Type 98 (L/46.1)4
Secondary  
MG 2: 7.7 mm MG1,2,7
1: 6.5 mm Type 91 MG 3
2: 7.7 mm Type 97 MG4
MG - coaxial 1: 7.7 mm MG8
MG - hull 1: 6.5 mm Type 91 (61) MG
1: 7.7 mm MG8
1: 7.7 mm Type 97 tank MG6
MG - turret rear 1: 7.7 mm Type 97 tank MG6
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 1193, 1304,6
Secondary  
MG 2,9703,6, 3,3004
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 6 - 122, 121,8, 6 - 143,7
Front: 0.55"6
Side: 0.47"6
Hull Front, Upper 124
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper 124
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear 124
Hull Top 94
Hull Bottom 94
Turret Front 124
0.47"6
Mantlet: 2.25"6
Turret Sides 124
0.47"6
Turret Rear 124
Turret Top 94
Engine (Make / Model) Mitsubishi A6120VD4
Mitsubishi NVD1,8
Mitsubishi NVD 61203,7
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Air2,3,6,7
Cylinders 61,2,3,4,6,7,8
Capacity  
Net HP 706, 1102, 1201,3,4,6,7,8
Power to weight ratio 16.2 HP/T4
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) Manual.3 Straight sliding gear.6
4 forward, 1 reverse4,6,8
Steering Clutch brake6,8
Steering ratio  
Starter Electric6
Electrical system 24-volt6
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Diesel1,2,3,4,6,7
Octane  
Quantity Main tank: 27 gallons4, 28 gallons6
Main tank: 104 liters4
Auxiliary tank: 7 gallons4, 8 gallons6
Auxiliary tank: 27 liters4
Road consumption 3.1 mpg6
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse MG: 35° left, 35° right.3
Hand6
Speed - Road 25 mph2, 28 mph1,3,4,7,8, 30 mph6
45 kph1,3,4,7,8
Speed - Cross Country 14 - 18 mph6, 18 mph4
29 kph4
Range - Road 110 miles6, 130 miles4, 150.4 miles8, 156 miles3,7, 152 miles1
209 km4, 242 km1,8, 250 km3,7
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits -15° to +20°4
Fording depth 3' 3"3,6,7
1 m3,7
Trench crossing 6'6, 6' 7"3,7
2 m3,7
Vertical obstacle 2' 8"3,6,7
0.812 m3,7
Climbing ability 40° (84%) slope6
Suspension (Type) 1 armored helical compression spring per side, acting against bell cranks on each of 2 bogies with 2 wheels each.6
Wheels each side 43,6
Return rollers each side 23,6
Tracks (Type) Dry pin6
Length  
Width 9.9"6
Diameter  
Number of links 986
Pitch 4"6
Tire tread Rubber3
Track centers/tread 5.95'6
  Type 3 Ke-Ri, Type 4 Ke-Nu
Crew Commander, driver, gunner-hull
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 7.4 tons
16,300 lb
Length 14' 1"
Height 7' 5.75"
Width 6' 9.5"
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 37 mm Type 94 (later models had Type 98)
Secondary  
MG  
MG - hull 7.7 mm Type 97
MG - turret rear 7.7 mm Type 97
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 130, 119
Secondary  
MG 2,970
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm)  
Hull Front, Upper 12
Hull Front, Lower 9
Hull Sides, Upper 12
Hull Sides, Lower 12
Hull Rear 6-12
Hull Top 9
Hull Bottom 9
Turret Front 12
Turret Sides 12
Turret Rear 12
Turret Top 9
Engine (Make / Model) Mitsubishi NVD 61020
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Air
Cylinders 6
Capacity  
Net HP 110, 120 @ 1,800 rpm
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type) 4 forward, 1 reverse
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Diesel
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse 360°
Speed - Road 28 mph,
45 kph
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road 130 miles
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth 3' 3"
Trench crossing 6'
95: 6' 7"
Vertical obstacle 2' 8"
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type) Bell crank
Wheels each side 4 (2 per bogie)
Return rollers each side 2
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width 9 7/8"
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  
  Type 3 Ke-Ri
Crew  
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 7.4 tons2
Length 14.13'2
Height 7.42'2
Width 6.79'2
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 57 mm2,3
Secondary  
MG  
MG - hull  
MG - turret rear  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main  
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm)  
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model)  
Bore / stroke  
Cooling  
Cylinders  
Capacity  
Net HP 1102
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type)  
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse  
Speed - Road  
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road  
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth  
Trench crossing  
Vertical obstacle  
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  
  Type 4 Ke-Nu
Crew 32
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 8.4 tons2
Length 14' 1.5"2
Height  
Width 6' 9.5"2
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 57 mm2
Secondary  
MG 2: 7.7 mm MG2
MG - hull  
MG - turret rear  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main  
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 6 - 252
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model)  
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Air2
Cylinders 62
Capacity  
Net HP 1102
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Diesel2
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse  
Speed - Road 25 mph2
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road  
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth  
Trench crossing  
Vertical obstacle  
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  
  Type 5 Ke-Ho
Crew 42
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 10 tons2
Length 14' 4.5"2
Height 7.33'2
Width 7.33'2
Width over tracks  
Ground clearance  
Ground contact length  
Ground pressure  
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 47 mm2
Secondary  
MG 7.7 mm MG2
MG - hull  
MG - turret rear  
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main  
Secondary  
MG  
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) 8 - 202
Hull Front, Upper  
Hull Front, Lower  
Hull Sides, Upper  
Hull Sides, Lower  
Hull Rear  
Hull Top  
Hull Bottom  
Turret Front  
Turret Sides  
Turret Rear  
Turret Top  
Engine (Make / Model)  
Bore / stroke  
Cooling Air6
Cylinders 62
Capacity  
Net HP 1502
Power to weight ratio  
Compression ratio  
Transmission (Type)  
Steering  
Steering ratio  
Starter  
Electrical system  
Ignition  
Fuel (Type) Diesel2
Octane  
Quantity  
Road consumption  
Cross country consumption  
Performance  
Traverse  
Speed - Road 31 mph2
Speed - Cross Country  
Range - Road  
Range - Cross Country  
Turning radius  
Elevation limits  
Fording depth  
Trench crossing  
Vertical obstacle  
Climbing ability  
Suspension (Type)  
Wheels each side  
Return rollers each side  
Tracks (Type)  
Length  
Width  
Diameter  
Number of links  
Pitch  
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread  

Sources:

  1. The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles - The Comprehensive Guide to Over 900 Armored Fighting Vehicles From 1915 to the Present Day, General Editor: Christopher F. Foss, 2002
  2. Tanks of the World, 1915-1945, Peter Chamberlain, Chris Ellis, 1972
  3. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Chris Bishop, 1998
  4. Japanese Tanks 1939-45, Steven J. Zaloga, 2007
  5. Tanks of World War II, Duncan Crow, 1979
  6. Tank Data, Aberdeen Proving Grounds Series, 1968?
  7. Armored Fighting Vehicles, 300 of the World's Greatest Military Vehicles, Philip Trewhitt, 1999
  8. World War I and II Tanks, George Forty, 2012
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