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Great Britain's Flag

Great Britain's Hawkins class cruisers

Photos

HMS Effingham flying paying-off pennant in September 1932:
HMS Effingham flying paying-off pennant in September 1932
©IWM, Q56635
HMS Effingham in Bangor, Northern Ireland on July 6, 1936:
HMS Effingham in Bangor, Northern Ireland on July 6, 1936
©IWM, HU-107195
HMS Effingham:
HMS Effingham
©IWM, Q6517
HMS Effingham in Norway:
HMS Effingham in Norway
©IWM, N-246
HMS Frobisher on March 12, 1942:
HMS Frobisher on March 12, 1942
©IWM, A-8062

HMS Frobisher escorting a troop convoy in the Indian Ocean on June 16, 1942:
HMS Frobisher escorting a troop convoy in the Indian Ocean on June 16, 1942
©IWM, A-10352

HMS Frobisher:
HMS Frobisher
©IWM, Q-75622
HMS Frobisher on March 12, 1942:
HMS Frobisher on March 12, 1942
©IWM, A-8063

HMS Frobisher escorting a troop convoy in the Indian Ocean on June 16, 1942:
HMS Frobisher escorting a troop convoy in the Indian Ocean on June 16, 1942
©IWM, A-10353
HMS Frobisher escorting a troop convoy in the Indian Ocean on June 16, 1942:
HMS Frobisher escorting a troop convoy in the Indian Ocean on June 16, 1942
©IWM, A-10350

HMS Frobisher at the Firth of Forth:
HMS Frobisher at the Firth of Forth
©IWM, A-29610
HMS Frobisher escorting a troop convoy in the Indian Ocean on June 16, 1942:
HMS Frobisher escorting a troop convoy in the Indian Ocean on June 16, 1942
©IWM, A-10351

HMS Frobisher:
HMS Frobisher
©IWM, A-65718
HMS Hawkins' crew in the Far East in 1929:
HMS Hawkins' crew in the Far East in 1929
©IWM, Q-115157
HMS Hawkins:
HMS Hawkins
©IWM, FL-10153
HMS Hawkins:
HMS Hawkins
©IWM, Q-23371
HMS Hawkins:
HMS Hawkins
©IWM, Q-75575
HMS Raleigh's wreck in August 1922 off the Labrador coast:
HMS Raleigh's wreck in August 1922 off the Labrador coast
©IWM, Q-114786
HMS Vindictive in Hong Kong in April 1926:
HMS Vindictive in Hong Kong in April 1926
©IWM, Q-80189
HMS Vindictive with a flight deck:
HMS Vindictive with a flight deck
©IWM, SP-669

Design

The Hawkins class cruisers were to hunt and destroy the German cruisers and armed merchant cruisers of the 1914 - 1915 period.

In June 1915 the Admiralty started to study what would be the requirements for the Hawkins class. It was felt a 6" gun would be too small, but a 9.2" too large so the 7.5" was selected. The class also had to have a high speed of 30 knots.

The Effingham, Frobisher, Hawkins, and Raleigh were ordered in December 1915. The Cavendish was ordered in April 1916.

With the reduction of the German threat development and construction of the Hawkins class was slowed.

Armament

  Shell Weight Elevation Range
7.5" L/46.5 Mk VI 200 lb 30° 21,110 yards
19,300 m

Engines

Initially four of the boilers were coal fired with oil sprayers as oil wasn't available world wide but coal was. During construction these were replaced by oil fired boilers.

London Naval Treaty

The London Naval Treaty of 1930 called for the Hawkins class to be demilitarized. The Frobisher became a training ship and the Effingham and Hawkins went into reserve.

Named After

The Hawkins class ships were named after famous Elizabethan seaman.

Ships

 

HMS Cavendish, Vindictive

  • Manufacturer: Harland & Wolff
  • July 1916: Laid down.
  • January 17, 1918: Launched.
  • 1918: Converted to aircraft carrier. Flight deck was 65' x 215'. Aft guns removed. Hanger for six reconnaissance aircraft built.
  • June 1918: Named changed to Vindictive.
  • September 21, 1918: Completed.
  • July 1919: Ran aground in Baltic. Heavily damaged.
  • 1920 - 1921: Repairs.
  • 1923 - 1925: Converted back into cruiser.
  • 1937 - 1938: Training ship.
  • 1939 - 1940: Converted into repair ship.
  • 1940 - 1942: South Atlantic.
  • 1943 - 1944: Mediterranean Fleet.
  • 1945: Home Fleet. Reserve.

HMS Effingham

  • Manufacturer: Portsmouth Dock Yard
  • April 6, 1917: Laid down.
  • June 8, 1921: Launched.
  • July 2, 1925: Completed.
  • 1925 - 1932: Flagship of 5th Cruiser Squadron in East Indies.
  • September 20, 1932: Flagship of VA Reserve Fleet.
  • 1937 - 1938: 7.5" guns and above water torpedo tubes removed.
  • 1937 - 1938, 1937 - Summer 1938: Refit. Nine 6" Mk XII guns, four 4", and three 0.5" quad mount machine guns added. After funnel, two boilers, and under water torpedo tubes removed.
  • 1939: America and West Indies.
  • September 1939: Member of 12th Cruiser Squadron doing patrols and escorting convoys in the North Atlantic.
  • November 1939: Moved £2 million in gold to Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  • 1940: Home Fleet. Escorted Atlantic convoys.
  • April 1940: Norwegian campaign. Bombarded positions around Narvik.
  • May 1940, May 17, 1940, May 18, 1940: Struck rock near Narvik and was total loss.
  • May 21, 1940: Wreck sunk by gunfire.

HMS Frobisher

  • Manufacturer: Devonport Dock Yard
  • August 2, 1916: Laid down.
  • March 20, 1920: Launched.
  • September 20, 1924: Completed.
  • 1924 - 1929: Flagship of 1st Cruiser Squadron in Mediterranean.
  • 1926: China Station.
  • 1927: Catapult added.
  • September 1929: Member of 2nd Cruiser Squadron, Atlantic Fleet.
  • November 1930: Reserve.
  • 1932 - 1939: Converted into training ship. Two 7.5" and two 4" guns removed.
  • 1939 - 1942, January 5, 1940 - March 1942: Refit at Plymouth. Armament changed.
  • 1942 - 1944, 1942 - March 1944: Member of 4th Cruiser Squadron, Eastern Fleet in Indian Ocean.
  • 1943 - 1944: Torpedo tubes removed.
  • April 2 - May 1944: Refit at Clyde. Four 2 pdr quad pompoms removed. Two 2 pdr 8 barrel pompoms and twelve 20 mm guns added.
  • June 1944: With Force D off Sword Beach during Normandy invasion.
  • August 1944: Damaged by Dackel torpedo.
  • 1944: Converted into training ship. Home Fleet.
  • 1945: Training ship.

HMS Hawkins

  • Manufacturer: Chatham Dock Yard
  • June 1916, June 3, 1916: Laid down.
  • October 1, 1917: Launched.
  • July 23, 1919, July 25, 1919: Completed.
  • 1919 - November 12, 1928: Flagship of 5th Light Cruiser Squadron at China Station.
  • 1924: Two 4" QF Mk V guns removed.
  • 1927: Two 4" QF Mk V guns added.
  • 1928 - December 31, 1929, 1929 - 1930: Refit at Chatham. Coal fired boilers replaced by oil fired. 4" gun added.
  • 1930 - May 5, 1930: Flagship of 2nd Cruiser Squadron, Atlantic Fleet.
  • September 1932 - April 1935: Flagship 4th Cruiser Squadron in East Indies.
  • April 1935: Reserve.
  • 1936, 1937 - 1938: 7.5" guns and above water torpedo tubes removed.
  • September 1938: Became training ship.
  • 1939: 7.5" guns added.
  • September 1939 - January 1940: Refit.
  • 1940 - 1941, January 1940 - 1941: Member of South American Division.
  • 1941, 1941 - 1942: Indian Ocean. Eastern Fleet.
  • February 1941: Member of Force K in raid on Mogadishu.
  • February 12, 1941: Captured Italian merchant Adria off Kismayu.
  • December 1941 - May 1942, December 4, 1941 - May 7, 1942: Refit at Portsmouth. Two 2 pdr pompoms removed. Two 2 pdr quad pompoms and seven 20 mm guns added.
  • 1942 - 1944, May 1942 - 1944: Member of Eastern Fleet.
  • 1943 - 1944: Torpedo tubes removed.
  • 1944: Home Fleet.
  • June 1944: Off Utah Beach during Normandy invasion.
  • August 8 - 23, 1944: Repairs at Rosyth. Two 2 pdr quad pompoms removed. Two 2 pdr 8 barrel pompoms and two 20 mm guns added.
  • 1944 - 1945: Training ship.
  • 1945: Reserve.

HMS Raleigh

  • Manufacturer: Beardmore, Chatham Dock Yard
  • December 9, 1915: Laid down.
  • August 28, 1919: Launched.
  • 1920: Completed.
  • August 1922, August 8, 1922: Total loss from wreck in fog off Labrador.
  • July 1928: Wreck blown up by crew from HMS Calcutta.

Specifications

  Hawkins class, Improved Birmingham class
Crew 690, 712
Crew - Flagship 690, 749
Displacement 9,860 tons
Displacement - Loaded 12,800 tons
Physical Characteristics  
Length 605'
184.4 m
Length - Between Perpendiculars 565'
172.2 m
Length - Water Line  
Beam 65'
19.8 m
Draft / Height 17' 3"
5.25 m
Draft / Height - Maximum  
Performance  
Speed 30.5 knots
Range at 14 knots 5,400 nautical miles
Armament 7.5": 7
7.5" L/50: 7
7.5" BL Mk VI: 7
Anti-Aircraft 4": 4
4" Mk V: 4
2 pdr: 2
2 pdr quad mounts: 2
20 mm: 10
Torpedo Tubes 21" 6
Torpedo Tubes - Above Water 21": 4
Torpedo Tubes - Below Water 21": 2
Armor  
Belt - Aft 2.25", 2.25" - 2.5"
Belt - Forward 1.5", 1.5" - 2.5", 2.5" - 3.5"
Belt - Machinery 2" - 3"
Belt - Magazines 2.5"
Belt - Main 1.5" - 3", 2" - 3"
Control Tower 3"
Deck 1" - 1.5"
Deck - Lower 1" - 1.5"
Deck - Upper 1", 1" - 1.5"
Magazine Box 0.5" - 1"
Engines  
Boilers Yarrow, Yarrow: 12
Shafts 4
Turbines Brown Curtis geared
HP 65,000
Oil 2,150 tons
  HMS Effingham
Crew  
Displacement 9,550 tons
Displacement - Loaded 12,170 tons
Physical Characteristics  
Length 604' 10"
Length - Between Perpendiculars 565' 0.25"
Length - Water Line  
Beam  
Draft / Height  
Draft / Height - Maximum  
Performance  
Speed 30.5 knots
Range  
Armament 7.5" L/45 BL Mk VI: 7
6": 9
Anti-Aircraft 4" twin mounts: 4
4" QF Mk V: 3
2 pdr Mk II: 2
2 pdr quad mounts: 2
0.5" quad machine guns: 2
Torpedo Tubes 21": 4
Torpedo Tubes - Above Water 21": 4
Torpedo Tubes - Below Water 21": 2
Aircraft 1
Armament - 1938 6" Mk XII: 9
Anti-Aircraft - 1938 4": 4
0.5" quad mount machine guns: 3
Armor  
Engines  
Boilers Yarrow: 8, 10
Shafts 4
Turbines Brown Curtis geared
HP 65,000
Oil 2,186 tons
  HMS Frobisher
Crew 712
Displacement 9,800 tons, 9,860 tons
Displacement - Loaded 12,300 tons
Physical Characteristics  
Length 604' 2"
Length - Between Perpendiculars 564' 11"
Length - Water Line  
Beam  
Draft / Height  
Draft / Height - Maximum  
Performance  
Speed 30.5 knots
Range  
Armament 7.5": 5
7.5" L/45: 4
7.5" L/45 BL Mk VI: 7
Anti-Aircraft 4": 5
4" QF Mk V: 3
2 pdr Mk II: 2
Torpedo Tubes - Above Water 21": 4
Torpedo Tubes - Below Water 21": 2
Armament - March 1942 7.5": 5
Anti-Aircraft - March 1942 4": 5
4" QF Mk V: 5
2 pdr quad mounts: 4
20 mm: 7
Anti-Aircraft - May 1944 4": 5
2 pdr eight barrel: 2
20 mm: 19
Armor  
Engines  
Boilers Yarrow: 10
Shafts 4
Turbines Brown Curtis geared
HP 65,000
Oil 2,186 tons
  HMS Hawkins
Crew 749
Displacement 9,800 tons
Displacement - Loaded 12,110 tons
Physical Characteristics  
Length 605' 1.5"
Length - Between Perpendiculars 565' 1.5"
Length - Water Line  
Beam  
Draft / Height  
Draft / Height - Maximum  
Performance  
Speed 29.5 knots, 30 knots
Range  
Armament 7.5" L/45 BL Mk VI: 7
Anti-Aircraft 3" QF Mk I: 10
2 pdr Mk II: 2
Torpedo Tubes - Above Water 21": 4
Torpedo Tubes - Below Water 21": 2
Armament - January 1940 7.5": 7
Anti-Aircraft - January 1940 4": 4
2 pdr pompoms: 4
Anti-Aircraft - 1942 2 pdr quad mounts: 2
20 mm: 7
Anti-Aircraft - August 1944 2 pdr eight barrel: 2
20 mm: 9
Armament - 1945 7.5": 7
Anti-Aircraft - 1945 4" QF Mk V: 4
2 pdr pompoms quad mounts: 2
2 pdr pompoms: 2
20 mm: 9
Armor  
Engines  
Boilers Yarrow: 12
Shafts 4
Turbines Parsons geared
HP 55,000, 60,000
Oil 1,480 tons, 2,600 tons, 2,740 tons
Coal 860 tons
  HMS Raleigh
Crew  
Displacement  
Displacement - Loaded  
Physical Characteristics  
Length  
Length - Between Perpendiculars  
Length - Water Line  
Beam  
Draft / Height  
Draft / Height - Maximum  
Performance  
Speed 31 knots
Range  
Armament 7.5" L/45 BL Mk VI: 7
Anti-Aircraft 3" QF Mk I: 10
2 pdr Mk II: 2
Torpedo Tubes - Above Water 21": 4
Torpedo Tubes - Below Water 21": 2
Armor  
Engines  
Boilers Yarrow: 12
Shafts 4
Turbines Brown-Curtis geared
HP 70,000
Oil  
  HMS Vindictive
Crew 468
Cadets: 200
Displacement 9,770 tons
Displacement - Loaded  
Physical Characteristics  
Length  
Length - Between Perpendiculars  
Length - Water Line  
Beam  
Draft / Height  
Draft / Height - Maximum  
Performance  
Speed 30 knots
Range  
Armament 7.5" L/45 BL Mk VI: 5
4.7": 2
Anti-Aircraft 3" QF Mk I: 10
2 pdr Mk II: 2
Torpedo Tubes - Above Water 21": 4
Torpedo Tubes - Below Water 21": 2
Armor  
Engines  
Boilers Yarrow: 12
Shafts 4
Turbines Parsons geared
HP 60,000
Oil 1,480 tons
Coal 860 tons

Sources:

  1. Cruisers of World War Two An International Encyclopedia, M. J. Whitley, 1995
  2. British Cruisers of World War Two, Alan Raven, John Roberts, 1980
  3. Warships of World War II, H. T. Lenton and J. J. Colledge, 1964
  4. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922-1946, Robert Gardiner, 1987
  5. Janes' Fighting Ships of World War II, 1989
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