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Great Britain's flag Great Britain's RAF aircraft marking

Great Britain's Hawker Typhoon fighter , "Tiffy"

Photos

  • Hawker Typhoon prototype fighter
  • Hawker Typhoon fighter
  • Hawker Typhoon fighter
  • Hawker Typhoon Mk IA fighter
  • Hawker Typhoon Mk IA fighter
  • Hawker Typhoon Mk IB fighter
  • Hawker Typhoon Mk IB fighter
  • Hawker Typhoon Mk IB fighter
  • Hawker Typhoon Mk IB fighter
  • Hawker Typhoon Mk IB fighter
  • Hawker Typhoon Mk IB fighter-reconnaissance
  • Hawker Typhoon Mk IB fighter
  • Hawker Typhoon
  • Hawker Typhoon

Design

Originally designed to be a fighter to combat the Focke Wulf Fw 190, but it wasn't as agile as its opponents.1,3 The Typhoon was also to be the replacement for the Hawker Hurricane.2 The design was started in 1937 to meet a Air Ministry specification.2

The Tornado was designed as the same time as the Typhoon and had a Rolls-Royce Vulture engine.1

The Typhoon was found to excel at being a close support aircraft.1,3,4

Canopy

Had a sliding bulletproof bubble canopy that allowed for excellent visibility.1

Engine

The Napier Sabre was very powerful but had reliability problems.1,3,4 Engine life could be as low as 20 hours.1

Undercarriage

The Typhoons undercarriage was wide and allowed for use from rough airstrips.1

Wings

The wing was very strong, allowing for large bomb loads and to dive at almost 500 mph / 800 kph.1

Tail

The Typhoon had tail flutter and it was solved by fitting "fish plates" to strengthen tail.1,3,6

Prototype

The Typhoon prototype first flew on February 24, 1940.1,2,3,4,5

Production

The first production aircraft flew on May 26, 19415 / May 27, 1941.3,4 Production lasted until November 1945.3

  • Total: 3,3302,3,4
    • Manufacturer: Hawker Aircraft Ltd.4
      • Hawker: 153
      • Gloster: 3,3153

Variants

  • Typhoon Mk IA: Had twelve 7.7 mm guns.2,4
  • Typhoon Mk IB: Had four 20 mm cannons.2,4

Usage

Britain, Canada, and New Zealand used the Typhoon.3

Typhoons shot down 246 Luftwaffe planes.1 The top Typhoon ace was J.R. Baldwin with 15 enemy aircraft shot down.1

First Usage

The No 56 and No 609 Squadron were equipped with Typhoons in September 1941.1,2

Mistaken Identity

On some occasions the Typhoon was mistaken for a Focke Wulf Fw 190 and shot down by friendly planes.1

Royal Air Force (RAF)

By mid 1944 there were 26 Typhoon equipped squadrons.3,4 By the end of the war there were a total of 32 squadrons were equipped with Typhoons.2

Tank Destroyer

On a single day in August 1944 Typhoons destroyed 135 tanks.3

Specifications

  Hawker Typhoon
Type Fighter5, Fighter-bomber3,5
Crew 13,5
Engine (Type) Napier Sabre IIA3,5
OR Napier Sabre IIB3
OR Napier Sabre IIC3
Cylinders "H" 243,5
Cooling IIA: Liquid5
HP IIA: 2,1803, 2,2005
IIB: 2,2003
IIC: 2,2603
Propeller blades 3 or 43, 3 or 4 blade de Havilland constant speed5
Dimensions  
Span 41' 7"3,5
12.67 m3,5
Length 31' 11"3,5
9.73 m3,5
Height 15' 3.5"3,5
4.66 m3,5
Wing area 279 sq ft5
25.92 sq m5
Weight  
Loaded 11,500 lb5
5,220 kg5
  Hawker Typhoon Mk IA
Engine (Type) Napier Sabre5
Cylinders H 245
Cooling Liquid5
HP 2,2005
Armament  
Wings 12: 0.303" MG3
12: 7.7 mm / 0.303" Browning MG5,6
Wings - Under 2: 1,000 lb bombs5
OR 2: 5,00 lb bombs5
OR 2: 45 gallon drop tanks5
OR 8: 60 lb HE rockets5
OR 8: 25 lb AP rockets5
  Hawker Typhoon Mk IB
Type Fighter-bomber1,2,4,6
Crew 11,4,6
Engine (Type) Napier Sabre II piston2,6
Napier Sabre IIA piston1,4
Cylinders Inline1,2, 244, H 246
Cooling Liquid4,6
HP 2,1801,2,4,6
Propeller blades 31
Dimensions  
Span 41' 7"1,2,4,6
12.67 m1,2,6
Length 31' 11"1,2,4,6
9.73 m1,6, 9.74 m2
Height 14' 10"1, 15' 3"4, 15' 3.5"2,6
4.52 m1, 4.66 m6, 4.67 m2
Wing area 279 ft2 1,2,6
25.9 m2 1 , 25.92 m2 2,6
Weight  
Empty 8,800 lb1,2,6, 8,840 lb3
3,992 kg1,2, 3,993 kg6, 4,010 kg3
Loaded 11,400 lb4, 13,250 lb1, 13,980 lb2,3,6
6,010 kg1, 6,341 kg2,3,6
Performance  
Speed @ 5,500' /
1,676 m
374 mph3
602 kph3
Speed @ 18,000' /
5,485 m
405 mph2,6
652 kph2,6
Speed @ 18,000' /
5,486 m
412 mph3
663 kph3
Speed @ 19,000' 412 mph4
Speed @ 19,685' /
6,000 m
413 mph1
664 kph1
Climb 3,000'/minute3
914 m/minute3
Climb to 15,000 ' /
4,570 m
6.2 minutes2, 6' 12"6
Climb to 15,000' /
4,572 m
5.9 minutes3
Service ceiling 31,800'3, 34,000'2, 35,100'1, 35,200'4
9,693 m3, 10,365 m2, 10,700 m1
Range 606 miles1, 610 miles3, 980 miles4
975 km1, 982 km3
Range with drop tanks 932 miles1, 980 miles3
1,500 km1, 1,577 km3
Range with bombs
2: 1,000 lb / 454 kg
510 miles2,6
820 km6, 821 km2
Armament  
Wings 4: 20 mm Hispano1,5
4: 20 mm2,3,4,6
Rounds 140 each1
Bombs 2: 1,000 lb1,2,3,5,6
2,000 lb4
2: 454 kg1,2,3,6
OR 2: 500 lb3,5
2: 227 kg3
OR  
Rockets 8 or 12: 60 lb1
8: 3" / 60 lb2,3
8: 60 lb6
8 or 12: 27 kg1
8: 76.2 mm / 27.2 kg2
8: 76.2 mm / 27 kg3
8: 27.2 kg6
8: 60 lb HE5
OR 8: 25 lb AP5
OR  
Drop tanks 2: 45 gallon1,5
2: 205 liter1

Sources:

  1. Aircraft of WWII, General Editor: Jim Winchester, 2004
  2. Fighting Aircraft of World War II, Editor: Karen Leverington, 1995
  3. Aircraft of WWII, Stewart Wilson, 1998
  4. World War II Airplanes Volume 1, Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi, 1976
  5. Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II, 1989
  6. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Chris Bishop, 1998
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site