World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of P-51 Mustang
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of T-34/85
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of Fw-190
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of Churchill
wwiivehicles.com ©2016
Search:
Great Britain's flagGreat Britain's RAF aircraft marking

Great Britain's Hawker Hurricane fighter

Photos

  • Hawker Hurricane prototype
  • Hawker Hurricane fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk I fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk I fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk I fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk I fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk I fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk IIA fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk IIB fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk IIB fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk IIC fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk IIC fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk IIC fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk IIB fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk IID fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk IV fighter-bomber
  • Hawker Hurricane Mk X fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane
  • Hawker Hurricane

Design

Sydney Camm designed the Hawker Hurricane starting in January 1934 and was to meet Air Ministry Specification F.36/34.2,3,5,7 The Hurricane's frame was fabric covered.1 The Hurricane was the first Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter to go over 300 mph / 483 kph.3,5 The Hurricane was also the RAF's first monoplane fighter.4,5

Hurricane Mk I

The two blade propeller used in the prototype was replaced by a three blade de Havilland or Rotol variable pitch.4,5,7

The fabric on the wings was replaced by a metal skin in the production model.4,7

In the Mediterranean and Far East a Vokes intake filter was added under the nose.4,7

Hurricane Mk II

The Hurricane Mk II was delivered in August 1940.5

Hurricane Mk IV

The Hurricane Mk IV arrived in March 1943.5 It was designed to attack armor.4 The wings were modified to carry 40 mm cannons in pods.4

It had more armor than the Hurricane IID that it was designed to replace.4

Had 76.2 mm rockets under the wing.3,4

Hurricane Mk X

The Canadian Car & Foundry (CCF) produced the Hurricane Mk X, Hurricane Mk XI, and Hurricane Mk XII between 1941 and 1942.4,7 Britain placed orders for a total of 1,140 CCF built Hurricanes.4 400 more were used by the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).4 Some of these were sent to the Soviet Union or converted to Sea Hurricanes.4

Prototype

The Hurricane prototype first flew on November 6, 1935.2,3,4,5,7 The prototype was able to go 315 mph at 16,500' and climb to 15,000' in five minutes seven seconds.5

Production

In June 1936 / June 3, 19365 an order for 600 was placed.4,5

The Hurricane Mk I first came off the production line and flew in October 1937.4,5,7

The Hurricane Mk II prototype (converted from a Mk I) first flew in June 1940.4

The Hurricane Mk IV prototype first flew in March 1943.4 It had a Rolls-Royce Merlin 32 engine with four blade propeller.4

Production licenses were awarded to Avions Fairey in Belgium and the Yugoslavian government.4

  • Prototype: 14
  • Hurricane Mk I: 3,8574
    • Hawker: 1,9244
    • Gloster: 1,8504
    • Canadian Car & Foundry: 604
    • Fairey: 34
    • Yugoslavia: 204
  • Hurricane Mk IIA: 4514
    • Hawker: 4184
    • Gloster: 334
  • Hurricane Mk IIB: 2,9484
    • Hawker: 1,7814
    • Gloster: 8674
    • Austin: 3004
  • Hurricane Mk IIC: 4,7114
    • Hawker: all4
  • Hurricane Mk IID: 2964
    • Hawker: all4
  • Hurricane Mk IV: 7944
    • Hawker: all4
  • Hurricane Mk V: 27, 34
  • Hurricane Mk X, Hurricane Mk XI, Hurricane Mk XII: 1,3914, 1,4512,3
    • Canadian Car & Foundry2,3,4,7
  • Sea Hurricanes: ~800 conversions.1
  • Total: over 14,0002, 14,2313, 14,2335, 14,4494, over 15,0007
    • Manufacturer:
      • Hawker Aircraft Ltd: 10,0305
      • Gloster: 2,7505
      • Canadian Car and Foundry: 1,4515
      • Fairey: 25
    • Production: 1936 - September 19447

Variants

  • Hawker F.36/34: Prototype.4
  • Hurricane Mk I:
  • Hurricane Mk IIA: Had Merlin XX engine which improved the speed by 20 mph / 32 kph.1,3 Started being delivered by the end of 1940.2,3 Used metal wings from Mk I.7 In 1941 racks were added for bombs.7
  • Hurricane Mk IIA Series I: Had 8 machine guns in standard Mk I wings.4
  • Hurricane Mk IIA Series II: The fuselage was made stronger.4 Longer nose.4
  • Hurricane Mk IIB: New wing.4 Could carry bombs starting in 1941.4,7 Entered service in May 1941.4 Two machine guns were placed outside the landing lights in the wings to make a total of 12 machine guns in the wings.7
  • Hurricane Mk IIC: Was tested by No. 151 Squadron during the Battle of Britain.1 Could carry bombs or fuel tanks under wings.4 The wings used were mostly rebuilt from Mk I wings.7
  • Hurricane Mk IID: No. 6 Squadron flew the Mk IIDs and were known as the "Flying Can Openers."1 Introduced in 1942.2 Used in North Africa.2,4 Also known as the "Tank Buster."4
  • Hurricane Mk IIE: Became the Hurricane Mk IV.4
  • Hurricane Mk III: Was to have a Packard Merlin engine but wasn't produced.1,7
  • Hurricane Mk IV: Added 350 lbs of armor.7
  • Hurricane Mk V: Was similar to the Hurricane Mk IV but wasn't put into production.4,7 Packard 27 or 32 engine.7
  • Hurricane Mk X: Had Hamilton Standard propeller.4 Made in Canada.7 Similar to the Mk I.7
  • Hurricane Mk XI: Had Canadian equipment.4
  • Hurricane Mk XII: Built in Canada.7
  • Hurricane Mk XIIA: Built in Canada.7

Usage

First Assignment

The Hurricane first joined the Royal Air Force (RAF) in December 1937.2,3,5

Start of World War II

By September 1939 there were 4975 / under 500 Hurricanes equipping 18 squadrons.4,5

Battle of France

Twelve of the Hurricane squadrons were sent to France.5

Battle of Britain

Hurricanes equipped 26 squadrons at the start of the Battle of Britain.5 Only 19 squadrons had Spitfires.5 Typically the Spitfires were to battle the German escorting fighters while the Hurricanes would go after the bombers.5

The Hurricane was the main fighter used by the Royal Air Force against the Germans during the Battle of Britain.2,3,5 The Hurricane shot down more enemy planes than all the other defenses combined.2,3

There were 659 Hurricane Mk Is in 29 squadrons.1

Between August and October 1940 there were 688 Hurricanes lost.1

Europe

The Hurricanes were used until 1943.2

Pacific

The Hurricanes were used until the end of the war.2

United Kingdom

Five RAF squadrons were equipped with the Mk IICs and were used in raids in north western Europe.1

Hurricanes were in service with No. 6 Squadron until 1946.1

Canada

In 1938 20 Hurricane Mk Is were ordered by Canada and delivered from February to August 1939.4

With the war coming, Britain wanted to assure their supply of Hurricanes so asked the Canadians to start producing them in Canada.4 A contract for 40 Hurricane Mk Is was placed with the Canadian Car & Foundry (CCF) in March 1939.4

The first CCF built Hurricane Mk I was flown in January 1940.4

The Mk XII was built by Canada.1 It was a Mk II with different armament and a Packard Merlin engine.1

Other Countries

Egypt, India, Ireland, Soviet Union, and Turkey used the Hurricane.1

Hurricane Mk I

Australia, Belgium, Britain, Canada, Netherlands, Romania, South Africa, Turkey, and Yugoslavia used the Hurricane Mk I.4

Norway

The Hurricane Mk I saw action in the Norwegian campaign.4

France

Around 200 Hurricane Mk Is were lost in the Battle of France.4

Battle of Britain

Over half of the aircraft shot down in the Battle of Britain were by Hurricane Mk Is.7

Hurricane Mk II

Britain, France, India, Eire, Portugal, South Africa, and the Soviet Union used the Hurricane Mk II.4

There were 80 RAF squadrons that had Hurricane Mk IICs.4

First Use

The Hurricane Mk IIB was first used over France in November 1941.7

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union received around 2,900 Hurricane Mk IIs.4

Hurricane Mk IV

The Hurricane Mk IV was used by Britain and the Soviet Union.4

Hurricane Mk X

The Hawker Hurricane Mk X was used by Britain, Canada, and the Soviet Union.4

Specifications

  Hawker Hurricane Mk I
Type Fighter4,5,6
Crew 14,5,6
Engine (Type) Rolls-Royce Merlin II2,3,4.5,7
OR Rolls-Royce Merlin III4,6,7
Cylinders V 124.5
Cooling Liquid5,6
HP 1,0302,3,4,5.6,7
Propeller blades 2 or 34
Propeller blades - Early 2 blade fixed4,5,7
Propeller blades - 1939 3 blade D.H. or Rotol constant speed4,5,7
Dimensions  
Span 40'4.5.6
12.19 m4
Length 31' 4"5, 31' 5"4,6
9.58 m4
Height 13'4, 13' 1"5,6
3.96 m4
Weight  
Empty 4,982 lb4
2,260 kg4
Loaded 6,218 lb5, 6,532 lb4, 6,600 lb6, 6,666 lb7
2,963 kg4
Maximum load 7,490 lb4
3,397 kg4
Performance  
Speed 335 mph6
Speed at sea level 253 mph4
408 kph4
Speed @ 16,500' /
4,953 m
324 mph4
521 kph4
Speed at 17,500' 330 mph7
Speed @ 20,000' 322 mph5
Cruising speed 175 mph4
281 kph4
Climb 2,300' per minute4, 2,520' per minute7
700 m per minute4
Climb to 20,000' 9'7
Service ceiling 33,400'5, 34,200'4, 36,000'7
10,424 m4
Range 525 miles5, 600 miles4, 830 miles6
965 km4
Armament  
Wings 8: MG5,6
8: 0.303" MG4
8: 7.7 mm MG2,3
8: 0.303" Browning MG7
  Hawker Hurricane Mk I (Trop)
Engine (Type) Rolls-Royce Merlin II7
OR Rolls-Royce Merlin III7
HP 1,0307
Weight  
Loaded 6,850 lb7
Performance  
Speed at 16,000' 317 mph7
Climb 2,400' per minute7
Climb to 20,000' 9' 30"7
Service ceiling 33,000'7
  Hawker Hurricane Mk II
Type Fighter-bomber4
Crew 14
Engine (Type) Rolls-Royce Merlin XX4,7
Cylinders V 124
HP 1,4604
Propeller blades 34
Dimensions  
Span 40'4
12.19 m4
Length 32' 3"4
9.83 m4
Height 13' 3"4
4.04 m4
  Hawker Hurricane Mk IIA
Engine (Type) Rolls-Royce Merlin XX2,7
HP 1,1857, 1,2802
Weight  
Loaded 7,014 lb7
Performance  
Speed at 21,500' 340 mph7
Climb 3,150' per minute7
Climb to 20,000' 7'7
Service Ceiling 41,0007
Armament  
Wings 8: MG5,7
8: 0.303" MG4
  Hawker Hurricane Mk IIB
Type Fighter bomber6
Engine (Type) Rolls-Royce Merlin6
Rolls-Royce Merlin XX7
Cooling Liquid6
HP 1,1857, 1,3006
Dimensions  
Span 40'6
Length 32' 3"6
Height 13' 3"6
Weight  
Empty 5,467 lb4
2,480 kg4
Loaded 7,233 lb4, 7,4407, 7,600 lb6
3,281 kg4
Performance  
Speed 350 mph6
Speed at 18,000 ' /
5,486 m
328 mph4
528 kph4
Speed at 19,500'
with 2: 500 lb bombs
307 mph7
Speed at 19,700'
with 2: 250 lb bombs
320 mph7
Speed at 21,500' 340 mph7
Cruising speed 177 mph4
285 kph4
Climb 2,950' per minute4,7
900 m/minute4
Climb with 2: 250 lb bombs 2,530' per minute7
Climb with 2: 500 lb bombs 2,280' per minute7
Climb to 20,000' 7' 30"7
Climb to 20,000'
with 2: 250 lb bombs
9' 20"7
Climb to 20,000'
with 2: 500 lb bombs
10' 30"7
Service ceiling 36,000'4, 40,000'7
10,973 m4
Service ceiling
with 2: 250 lb bombs
33,000'7
Service ceiling
with 2: 500 lb bombs
30,000'7
Range 465 miles4, 730 miles6
748 km4
Range with drop tanks 935 miles4
1,505 km4
Armament 12: 7.7 mm Browning MG1,2,3
Wings 12: MG5
12: 0.303" MG4,7
Bombs - wing racks 1: 500 lb4
2: 500 lb1
1: 227 kg4
2: 227 kg1
OR 2: 250 lb4,6
2: 113 kg4
OR  
Rockets 8: 3" / 60 lb4
8: 7.62 cm / 27 kg4
  Hawker Hurricane Mk IIB (Trop)
Engine (Type) Rolls-Royce Merlin XX7
HP 1,1857
Weight  
Loaded 7,540 lb7
Performance  
Speed at 18,200' 334 mph7
Climb 2,850' per minute7
Climb to 20,000' 7.7 minutes7
Service ceiling 35,500'7
  Hawker Hurricane Mk IIB (Trop, Long Range)
Engine (Type) Rolls-Royce Merlin XX7
HP 1,1857
Weight  
Loaded 8,290 lb7
Performance  
Speed at 18,200' 312 mph7
Climb 2,400' per minute7
Climb to 20,000' 10.4 minutes7
Service ceiling 33,000'7
  Hawker Hurricane Mk IIC
Type Fighter1,2,3,6, Fighter-bomber1,2,3,5
Crew 11,2,3,5,6
Engine (Type) 1: Rolls-Royce6
1: Rolls-Royce Merlin XX piston1,2,3,5,7
Cylinders Inline2, V 123,5
Cooling Liquid1,5,6
HP 1,1857, 1,2801,2,3,5, 1,3006
Propeller blades 31
Dimensions  
Span 40'1,2,5,6
12.19 m1,2
Length 32'1,2, 32' 2"5,6
9.75 m1,2
Height 13' 1"1,2,5, 13' 3"6
3.99 m1,2
Wing area 257 ft2 1, 257.5 ft2 2
23.92 m2 1,2
Weight  
Empty 5,658 lb4, 5,788 lb1, 5,800 lb2
2,566 kg4, 2,631 kg1,2
Loaded 7,590 lb6, 7,670 lb7, 7,800 lb5, 8,083 lb1, 8,100 lb2
3,674 kg1,2
Maximum load 8,044 lb4
3,649 kg4
Performance  
Speed 335 mph1
541 kph1
Speed at 12,500' /
3,810 m
336 mph2,3
541 kph2,3
Speed at 19,300'
with 2: 500 lb bombs
301 mph7
Speed at 19,500'
with 2: 250 lb bombs
314 mph7
Speed at 21,500' 334 mph7
Speed at 22,000' 339 mph5
Climb 2,780' per minute7
Climb with 2: 250 lb bombs 2,400' per minute7
Climb with 2: 500 lb bombs 2,160' per minute7
Climb to 20,000' 7' 40"7
Climb to 20,000'
with 2: 250 lb bombs
9.8 minutes7
Climb to 20,000'
with 2: 500 lb bombs
11' 30"7
Climb to 20,000' /
6,095 m
9.1 minutes2,3
Climb to 20,000' /
6,100 m
9.1 minutes1
Service ceiling 35,600'1,2,3,5, 36,000'7
10,850 m1,2,3
Service ceiling
with 2: 250 lb bombs
32,500'7
Service ceiling
with 2: 500 lb bombs
29,500'7
Range 460 miles1,2,5
740 km1
Range with 2:
53 gallon / 200 liter drop tanks
920 miles1
1,480 km1
Armament 4: 20 mm1,3
Wings 4: 20 mm Hispano or Oerlikon1,2,3,6
4: 20 mm Hispano7
4: 20 mm4,5
Bombs - wing racks 2: 250 lb1,7
2: 113 kg1
OR 2: 500 lb1,2,5,7
2: 227 kg1,2
OR  
Rockets 8: 60 lb2
8: 27.2 kg2
OR  
Drop tanks 2: 90 gallon2,7
2: 409 liter2
OR 2: 45 gallon7
  Hawker Hurricane Mk IIC (Trop)
Engine (Type) Rolls-Royce Merlin XX7
HP 1,1857
Weight  
Loaded 7,780 lb7
Performance  
Speed 301 mph4
484 kph4
Speed at 18,000' 328 mph7
Climb 2,400' per minute4, 2,650' per minute7
731 m per minute4
Climb to 20,000' 8' 20"7
Service ceiling 33,200'4, 34,000'7
10,119 m4
Range 426 miles4
686 km4
  Hawker Hurricane Mk IIC (Trop, Long Range)
Engine (Type) Rolls-Royce Merlin XX7
HP 1,1857
Weight  
Loaded 8,530 lb7
Performance  
Speed at 18,000' 306 mph7
Climb 2,280' per minute7
Climb to 20,000' 11 minutes7
Service ceiling 31,500'7
  Hawker Hurricane Mk IID
Type Ground attack4
Crew 14,5
Engine (Type) Rolls-Royce Merlin XX4
Cylinders V 124
Cooling Liquid4
HP 1,4604
Propeller blades 34
Dimensions  
Span 40'4
12.19 m4
Length 32' 3"4
9.83 m4
Height 13' 3"4
4.04 m4
Armament  
Wings 2: 0.303" MG4,7
Under wings 2: 40 mm "S" cannons1,3
2: 40 mm4,5
2: 40 mm Vickers7
  Hawker Hurricane Mk IV
Engine (Type) Rolls-Royce Merlin 217
OR Rolls-Royce Merlin 227
OR Rolls-Royce Merlin 244
OR Rolls-Royce Merlin 274
HP 1,6204
Propeller blades 34
Dimensions  
Span 40'4
12.19 m4
Length 32' 3"4
9.83 m4
Height 13' 3"4
4.04 m4
Weight  
Empty 6,150 lb4
2,790 kg4
Loaded 8,463 lb4
3,838 kg4
Performance  
Speed 314 mph7
502.4 kph7
Speed @ 13,500' /
4,115 m
314 mph4
505 kph4
Cruising speed @ 2,000' /
610 m
176 mph4
283 kph4
Climb to 2,000' /
610 m
2.75 minutes4
Service ceiling 32,100'4
9,784 m4
Range 495 miles4,7
790 km7, 797 km4
Armament  
Wings 2: 0.303" MG4,7
Under wings 2: 40 mm4
2: 40 mm Vickers7
OR 3: 3" / 60 lb rockets4
3: 7.62 cm / 27 kg rockets4
8: Rockets7
OR 2: 250 lb bombs7
OR 2: 500 lb bombs7
OR 2: 45 gallon drop tanks7
OR 2: 90 gallon drop tanks7
  Hawker Hurricane Mk X
Type Fighter4
Crew 14
Engine (Type) Packard Merlin 284,7
OR Packard Merlin 294
Cylinders V 124
HP 1,3004
Propeller blades 34, Hamilton Standard Hydromatic7
Dimensions  
Span 40'4
12.19 m4
Length 32' 3"4
9.834
Height 13' 3"4
4.04 m4
Weight  
Empty 5,467 lb4
2480 kg4
Loaded 7,233 lb4
3,281 kg4
Performance  
Speed @ 18,000' /
5,486 m
328 mph4
528 kph4
Cruising speed 177 mph4
285 kph4
Climb 2,950'/minute4
900 m/minute4
Service ceiling 36,000'4
10,973 m4
Range 465 miles4
748 km4
Armament  
Wings 8 or 12: 0.303" MG4
OR 4: 20 mm4
  Hawker Hurricane Mk XI
Armament  
Wings 8: MG4
OR 4: cannon4
  Hawker Hurricane Mk XII
Engine (Type) Packard Merlin 294,7
Armament  
Wings 12: MG4
  Hawker Hurricane Mk XIIA
Engine (Type) Packard Merlin 297
Armament  
Wings 8 or 12: MG4
OR 4: cannon4

 

Sources:

  1. Aircraft of WWII, General Editor: Jim Winchester, 2004
  2. Fighting Aircraft of World War II, Editor: Karen Leverington, 1995
  3. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, General Editor Chris Bishop, 1998
  4. Aircraft of WWII, Stewart Wilson, 1998
  5. World War II Airplanes Volume 1, Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi, 1976
  6. Aeronautics Aircraft Spotters' Handbook, Ensign L. C. Guthman, 1943
  7. Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II, 1989
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site