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German Balkenkreuz

Germany's Junkers Ju 52 transport
Nicknames: Tante Ju (Auntie Junkers), Iron Annie

Photos

  • Junkers Ju 52 transport
  • Junkers Ju 52 transport
  • Junkers Ju 52 transport
  • Junkers Ju 52/3 transport
  • Junkers Ju 52/3 transport
  • Junkers Ju 52/3 mg63 minesweeper
  • Junkers Ju 52 transport

Design

The Junkers Ju 52 started out with a single engine in 1930.3,6

Engines

The engines on the wings were angled slightly outward.1 This was to make the Ju 52 easier to control if one of the wing engines failed.1

Wings

The flaps and ailerons were hung behind the wing.1 The wings were mounted low and were constructed from metal.4

Fuselage

The skin was corrugated duralumin.1,2 It was load-bearing and proved to be very strong.1

The rear gunner had a windshield to protect him from the slipstream.1

Prototype

The Ju 52/3m prototype first flew in April 1931 and it was powered by three Pratt & Whitney Hornet radial engines (525 HP4 / 550 HP).3,4
The prototype first flew in April 1932.1

Production

By the end of the war there were only 50 flyable.1

  • Ju 52: 4,8351,3,4
    • Ju 52/3m:
      • 1930 - 1932 produced as civilian transport.6
      • 1934 - 1935 produced as bomber.6
    • Manufacturer: Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenwerke A.G.4
    • Production: ? - mid 19443
    • Hungary: 263
  • Post World War II:
    • France: 4001,3
      • Manufacturer: Ateliers Aéronautiques de Colombes4
    • Spain: 1701,3,4
      • Manufacturer: C.A.S.A.4

Variants

  • Ju 52/3m: Initially three engine civilian transport.6 Later built as bomber.6
  • Ju 52/3mg3e, Ju 52/3m g3e: Bomber version.1,4
  • Ju 52/3mg4e, Ju 52/3m g4e: Able to use different wheel, float, or ski landing gear.2 Stronger landing gear.6
  • Ju 52/3mg5e, Ju 52/3m g5e: Able to use different wheel, float, or ski landing gear.2,3,6 De-icing equipment on wings.6
  • Ju 52/3mg6e, Ju 52/3m g6e: Improved radio.2,6 Used BMW 132T engines.3
  • Ju 52/3mg7e, Ju 52/3m g7e4: Had automatic pilot.2,6 The loading doors were wider.2,4,6 Could carry 18 assault troops or 12 stretchers.2,4 Appeared in 1941.4 Glider hook became standard equipment.4
  • Ju 52/3mg8e, Ju 52/3m g8e: More cabin windows.2 Had a 13 mm MG in dorsal position.2
  • Ju 52/3mg9e: Glider tug.2
  • Ju 52/3mg10e: Had BMW 132L radial engine.2 Introduced in late 1943.2
  • Ju 52/3m g14e: Production started in late 1943.4 More armor protection for the pilot.4 Had three 7.9 mm machine guns and one 13 mm machine gun.4
  • Ju 52/3ms: Had floats.1
  • Ju 52/3m(MS): Had an energized hoop to explode mines.1
  • AAC.1 Toucan: French built version.4
  • CASA 352: Spanish built version.3

Usage

Germany, Hungary, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland used the Ju 52 during World War II.3

The Luftwaffe used the Junkers Ju 52 on all fronts.3

Multi-role

The Ju 52 was used mostly as a transport, but it was also used as a bomber, flying classroom, minesweeper, glider tug, and other roles.3

Airlines

There were 200 Ju 52s that equipped 30 airlines before 1940.3

Bomber Squadrons

The Luftwaffe used the Ju 52/3mg3e as a heavy bomber in its first bomber squadrons.3

Spanish Civil War

Twenty Ju 52s were sent to Spain in the Condor Legion and were used mostly for transport.4 Some of the Ju 52/3mg3es in Spain were used as bombers.1,3 They were flown for 13,000 operational hours and dropped around 6,000 tons of bombs.3

Eve of Invasion of Poland

The Luftwaffe had 552 Ju 52s before the invasion of Poland.2 547 of those were the Ju 52/3ms.2

Demyansk

In three months 22,399 tonnes / 22,045 tons of supplies were air lifted to six divisions.1

After the War

The Swiss Fliegertruppe flew the Ju 52/3ms into the 1980s.1

Specifications

  Junkers Ju 52/3m
Type Transport3,6, Bomber3
Crew 36, 3 - 43
Pilot, co-pilot, radio operator6
Passengers 16 - 186, 183
OR 12 stretchers6
Engine (Type) 3: BMW 132 A6
OR 3: BMW 132 T6
Cylinders Radial 96
Cooling Air6
Fuel Capacity 535 gallons6
Dimensions  
Span 95' 106, 95' 11.5"3
29.25 m6, 29.49 m3
Length 62'3,6
18.9 m3,6
Height 14' 10"6, 18' 2"3
4.5 m6, 5.54 m3
Wing area 1,190 sq ft6
110.5 sq m6
Weight  
Empty 14,325 lb6
6,510 kg6
Loaded 24,200 lb6
10,990 kg6
Performance  
Speed at Sea Level 165 mph6
264 kph6
Cruising speed 132 mph6
211 kph6
Climb to 10,000' /
3,050 m
17 minutes6
Service ceiling 18,000'6
5,490 m6
Range 800 miles6
1,280 km6
Armament  
Dorsal turret 1: 7.9 mm MG3
OR 1: 13 mm3,6
Abeam 1: 7.9 mm MG3
2: 7.9 mm MG 156
Ventral 1: 7.9 mm MG3
Bombs 1,102 lb3
500 kg3
  Junkers Ju 52/3mg3e, Junkers Ju 52/3m g3e
Type Bomber4,6
Crew 44
Engine (Type) 3: BMW 132A6, BMW 123A-33, BMW 132 A-34
Cylinders Radial 93,4
Cooling Air4
HP 725 each3,4
Propeller blades 2 each3
Dimensions  
Span 95' 11"4
Length 62'4
Height 18' 2"4
Weight  
Empty 12,610 lb3
5,720 kg3
Loaded 20,900 lb6, 20,944 lb4, 23,149 lb3
9,500 kg6, 10,500 kg3
Performance  
Speed @ 2,955' /
900 m
171 mph3
275 kph3
Speed @ 3,000' 172 mph4
Cruising speed 130 mph3
209 kph3
Service ceiling 19,360'3,4
5,900 m3
Range 621 miles3, 810 miles4
1,000 km3
Armament  
Abeam 1: 7.9 mm MG4
Ventral 1: 7.9 mm MG4
Bombs 1,100 lb4
  Junkers Ju 52/3mg4e, Junkers Ju 52/3m g4e
Type Transport2,6
Crew 2-32
Passengers 182
Stretchers 122
Engine (Type) 3: BMW 132T piston2
Cylinders Radial2
HP 830 each2
Dimensions  
Span 95' 11.5"2
29.25 m2
Length 62'2
18.9 m2
Height 11' 9 3/8"2
3.6 m2
Wing area 1,189.5 ft2 2
110.5 m2 2
Weight  
Empty 14,352 lb2
6,510 kg2
Loaded 23,100 lb6, 23,148 lb2
10,490 kg6, 10,500 kg2
Performance  
Speed at sea level 168 mph2
270 kph2
Climb 689'/minute2
210 m/minute2
Service ceiling 18,045'2
5,500 m2
Range 570 miles2
917 km2
  Junkers Ju 52/3mg5e, Junkers Ju 52/3m g5e
Type Transport4
Crew 2 - 34
Engine (Type) 3: BMW 132T3,6, 3: BMW 132 T-24
Cylinders Radial3, Radial 94
Cooling Air4
HP 830 each3,4
Propeller blades 2 each3
Dimensions  
Span 95' 11"4
Length 62'4
Weight  
Empty 14,330 lb3
6,500 kg3
Loaded 23,149 lb4, 24,320 lb3
11,031 kg3
Performance  
Speed 171 mph4
Speed @ 4,590' /
1,400 m
178 mph3
286 kph3
Service ceiling 18,000'3,4
5,486 m3
Range 798 miles4, 800 miles3
1,287 km3
Armament 3: MG4
  Junkers Ju 52/3mg7e, Junkers Ju 52/3m g7e
Type Transport1
Crew 31
Passengers 181,4
Stretchers 124
Engine (Type) 3: BMW 132T3
3: BMW 132T-21
Cylinders Radial 91
Cooling Air1
HP 830 each1
Propeller blades 2 each1
Dimensions  
Span 95' 11"1
29.24 m1
Length 61' 8"1
18.8 m1
Height 14' 9"1
4.5 m1
Wing area 1,189 ft2 1
110.46 m2 1
Weight  
Empty 14,432 lb1
6,546 kg1
Loaded 23,133 lb1, 24,200 lb6
10,493 kg1, 10,990 kg6
Performance  
Speed at sea level 183 mph1
295 kph1
Climb 682'/minute1
208 m/minute1
Service ceiling 18,050'1
5,500 m1
Armament  
Dorsal turret 1: 7.92 mm MG 151
OR  
Abeam 2: 7.92 mm MG1
  Junkers Ju 52/3 MZ
Engine (Type) 3: BMW 132 H5
Cylinders Radial5
Cooling Air5
HP 760 each5
Dimensions  
Span 95' 7"5
Length 62'5
Height 14' 10"5
Weight  
Loaded 27,500 lb5
Performance  
Speed 210 mph5
Range 800 miles5

Sources:

  1. Aircraft of WWII, General Editor: Jim Winchester, 2004
  2. Fighting Aircraft of World War II, Editor: Karen Leverington, 1995
  3. Aircraft of WWII, Stewart Wilson, 1998
  4. World War II Airplanes Volume 1, Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi, 1976
  5. Aeronautics Aircraft Spotters' Handbook, Ensign L. C. Guthman, 1943
  6. Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II, 1989
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site