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German Balkenkreuz

Germany's Junkers Ju 52 transport
Nicknames: Tante Ju (Auntie Junkers), Iron Annie

Photos

  • Junkers Ju 52 transport
  • Junkers Ju 52 transport
  • Junkers Ju 52 transport
  • Junkers Ju 52/3 transport
  • Junkers Ju 52/3 transport
  • Junkers Ju 52/3 mg63 minesweeper
  • Junkers Ju 52 transport

Design

The Junkers Ju 52 started out with a single engine in 1930.

Engines

The engines on the wings were angled slightly outward. This was to make the Ju 52 easier to control if one of the wing engines failed.

Wings

The flaps and ailerons were hung behind the wing. The wings were mounted low and were constructed from metal.

Fuselage

The skin was corrugated duralumin. It was load-bearing and proved to be very strong.

The rear gunner had a windshield to protect him from the slipstream.

Prototype

The Ju 52/3m prototype first flew in April 1931 and it was powered by three Pratt & Whitney Hornet radial engines (525 HP / 550 HP).
The prototype first flew in April 1932.

Production

By the end of the war there were only 50 flyable.

  • Ju 52: 4,835
    • Ju 52/3m:
      • 1930 - 1932 produced as civilian transport.
      • 1934 - 1935 produced as bomber.
    • Manufacturer: Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenwerke A.G.
    • Production: ? - mid 1944
    • Hungary: 26
  • Post World War II:
    • France: 400
      • Manufacturer: Ateliers Aéronautiques de Colombes
    • Spain: 170
      • Manufacturer: C.A.S.A.

Variants

  • Ju 52/3m: Initially three engine civilian transport. Later built as bomber.
  • Ju 52/3mg3e, Ju 52/3m g3e: Bomber version.
  • Ju 52/3mg4e, Ju 52/3m g4e: Able to use different wheel, float, or ski landing gear. Stronger landing gear.
  • Ju 52/3mg5e, Ju 52/3m g5e: Able to use different wheel, float, or ski landing gear. De-icing equipment on wings.
  • Ju 52/3mg6e, Ju 52/3m g6e: Improved radio. Used BMW 132T engines.
  • Ju 52/3mg7e, Ju 52/3m g7e: Had automatic pilot. The loading doors were wider. Could carry 18 assault troops or 12 stretchers. Appeared in 1941. Glider hook became standard equipment.
  • Ju 52/3mg8e, Ju 52/3m g8e: More cabin windows. Had a 13 mm MG in dorsal position.
  • Ju 52/3mg9e: Glider tug.
  • Ju 52/3mg10e: Had BMW 132L radial engine. Introduced in late 1943.
  • Ju 52/3m g14e: Production started in late 1943. More armor protection for the pilot. Had three 7.9 mm machine guns and one 13 mm machine gun.
  • Ju 52/3ms: Had floats.
  • Ju 52/3m(MS): Had an energized hoop to explode mines.
  • AAC.1 Toucan: French built version.
  • CASA 352: Spanish built version.

Usage

Germany, Hungary, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland used the Ju 52 during World War II.

The Luftwaffe used the Junkers Ju 52 on all fronts.

Multi-role

The Ju 52 was used mostly as a transport, but it was also used as a bomber, flying classroom, minesweeper, glider tug, and other roles.

Airlines

There were 200 Ju 52s that equipped 30 airlines before 1940.

Bomber Squadrons

The Luftwaffe used the Ju 52/3mg3e as a heavy bomber in its first bomber squadrons.

Spanish Civil War

Twenty Ju 52s were sent to Spain in the Condor Legion and were used mostly for transport. Some of the Ju 52/3mg3es in Spain were used as bombers. They were flown for 13,000 operational hours and dropped around 6,000 tons of bombs.

Eve of Invasion of Poland

The Luftwaffe had 552 Ju 52s before the invasion of Poland. 547 of those were the Ju 52/3ms.

Demyansk

In three months 22,399 tonnes / 22,045 tons of supplies were air lifted to six divisions.

After the War

The Swiss Fliegertruppe flew the Ju 52/3ms into the 1980s.

Specifications

  Junkers Ju 52/3m
Type Transport, Bomber
Crew 3, 3 - 4
Pilot, co-pilot, radio operator
Passengers 16 - 18, 18
OR 12 stretchers
Engine (Type) 3: BMW 132 A
OR 3: BMW 132 T
Cylinders Radial 9
Cooling Air
Fuel Capacity 535 gallons
Dimensions  
Span 95' 10, 95' 11.5"
29.25 m, 29.49 m
Length 62'
18.9 m
Height 14' 10", 18' 2"
4.5 m, 5.54 m
Wing area 1,190 sq ft
110.5 sq m
Weight  
Empty 14,325 lb
6,510 kg
Loaded 24,200 lb
10,990 kg
Performance  
Speed at Sea Level 165 mph
264 kph
Cruising speed 132 mph
211 kph
Climb to 10,000' /
3,050 m
17 minutes
Service ceiling 18,000'
5,490 m
Range 800 miles
1,280 km
Armament  
Dorsal turret 1: 7.9 mm MG
OR 1: 13 mm
Abeam 1: 7.9 mm MG
2: 7.9 mm MG 15
Ventral 1: 7.9 mm MG
Bombs 1,102 lb
500 kg
  Junkers Ju 52/3mg3e, Junkers Ju 52/3m g3e
Type Bomber
Crew 4
Engine (Type) 3: BMW 132A, BMW 123A-3, BMW 132 A-3
Cylinders Radial 9
Cooling Air
HP 725 each
Propeller blades 2 each
Dimensions  
Span 95' 11"
Length 62'
Height 18' 2"
Weight  
Empty 12,610 lb
5,720 kg
Loaded 20,900 lb, 20,944 lb, 23,149 lb
9,500 kg, 10,500 kg
Performance  
Speed @ 2,955' /
900 m
171 mph
275 kph
Speed @ 3,000' 172 mph
Cruising speed 130 mph
209 kph
Service ceiling 19,360'
5,900 m
Range 621 miles, 810 miles
1,000 km
Armament  
Abeam 1: 7.9 mm MG
Ventral 1: 7.9 mm MG
Bombs 1,100 lb
  Junkers Ju 52/3mg4e, Junkers Ju 52/3m g4e
Type Transport
Crew 2-3
Passengers 18
Stretchers 12
Engine (Type) 3: BMW 132T piston
Cylinders Radial
HP 830 each
Dimensions  
Span 95' 11.5"
29.25 m
Length 62'
18.9 m
Height 11' 9 3/8"
3.6 m
Wing area 1,189.5 ft2
110.5 m2
Weight  
Empty 14,352 lb
6,510 kg
Loaded 23,100 lb, 23,148 lb
10,490 kg, 10,500 kg
Performance  
Speed at sea level 168 mph
270 kph
Climb 689'/minute
210 m/minute
Service ceiling 18,045'
5,500 m
Range 570 miles
917 km
  Junkers Ju 52/3mg5e, Junkers Ju 52/3m g5e
Type Transport
Crew 2 - 3
Engine (Type) 3: BMW 132T, 3: BMW 132 T-2
Cylinders Radial, Radial 9
Cooling Air
HP 830 each
Propeller blades 2 each
Dimensions  
Span 95' 11"
Length 62'
Weight  
Empty 14,330 lb
6,500 kg
Loaded 23,149 lb, 24,320 lb
11,031 kg
Performance  
Speed 171 mph
Speed @ 4,590' /
1,400 m
178 mph
286 kph
Service ceiling 18,000'
5,486 m
Range 798 miles, 800 miles
1,287 km
Armament 3: MG
  Junkers Ju 52/3mg7e, Junkers Ju 52/3m g7e
Type Transport
Crew 3
Passengers 18
Stretchers 12
Engine (Type) 3: BMW 132T
3: BMW 132T-2
Cylinders Radial 9
Cooling Air
HP 830 each
Propeller blades 2 each
Dimensions  
Span 95' 11"
29.24 m
Length 61' 8"
18.8 m
Height 14' 9"
4.5 m
Wing area 1,189 ft2
110.46 m2
Weight  
Empty 14,432 lb
6,546 kg
Loaded 23,133 lb, 24,200 lb
10,493 kg, 10,990 kg
Performance  
Speed at sea level 183 mph
295 kph
Climb 682'/minute
208 m/minute
Service ceiling 18,050'
5,500 m
Armament  
Dorsal turret 1: 7.92 mm MG 15
OR  
Abeam 2: 7.92 mm MG
  Junkers Ju 52/3 MZ
Engine (Type) 3: BMW 132 H
Cylinders Radial
Cooling Air
HP 760 each
Dimensions  
Span 95' 7"
Length 62'
Height 14' 10"
Weight  
Loaded 27,500 lb
Performance  
Speed 210 mph
Range 800 miles

Sources:

  1. Aircraft of WWII, General Editor: Jim Winchester, 2004
  2. Fighting Aircraft of World War II, Editor: Karen Leverington, 1995
  3. Aircraft of WWII, Stewart Wilson, 1998
  4. World War II Airplanes Volume 1, Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi, 1976
  5. Aeronautics Aircraft Spotters' Handbook, Ensign L. C. Guthman, 1943
  6. Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II, 1989
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