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German Balkenkreuz

Germany's Junkers Ju 252 transport, Junkers Ju 352 "Herkules" transport

Design

Junkers Ju 252

The Junkers Ju 252 was designed in 1939 intending it would be a replacement for the Junkers Ju 52.1

It was similar with the three motors, but the rest was a new design.1 The Ju 252 was larger, faster, and could carry a larger load.1 It was constructed from metal but did not have the corrugated skin like the Ju 52.1

The Ju 252 had a ventral loading hatch.1

Junkers Ju 352

The Junkers Ju 352 Herkules was made from wood and steel tube construction to save on strategic materials.1,2 The Ju 352 was covered in fabric.1

The BMW Bramo 323 engines were selected as they had a lower production priority.1 The BMWs would have 1,200 HP at takeoff with water-methanol boost.1,3

Prototype

In September 1939 there were four Ju 252 prototypes under construction.1

The Ju 352V1 prototype first flew in October 1943 / October 1, 19432.1

Production

There was an initial order for 25 Ju 252A-1s placed.1 Only eleven of these were built as it was felt the Ju 252 would make demands on strategic materials.1

  • Junkers Ju 252 Prototypes: 41
  • Junkers Ju 252: 111
  • Junkers Ju 352 Prototypes: 21
  • Junkers Ju 352A-0: 101,2
  • Junkers Ju 352A-1: 322, 331
  • Manufacturer: Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenwerke A.G.2

Usage

Germany was the only user of the Ju 252 and Ju 352.1

The Ju 252s were used on special duties, such as agent drops, and cargo transporter.1

The Ju 352 entered service in 1944 and was also used for special duties and also glider towing, paratroop dropping, and transporting.1 There were also missions to carry spies and agents behind enemy lines.2

Specifications

  Junkers Ju 252
Type Transport1
Engine (Type) 3: Junkers Jumo 2113, Junkers Jumo 211F1
Cylinders Inverted V 121
HP 1,410 each1
Propeller blades 3 each1
Weight  
Empty 28,880 lb1
13,100 kg1
Loaded 52,911 lb1
24,000 kg1
  Junkers Ju 352
Type Transport1,3, Glider Tug3
Crew 43
Pilot, Co-Pilot, Radio Operator / Gunner, Mechanic3
Cargo 1,342 cubic ft3
Engine (Type) 3: BMW Bramo 323R-21,3
Cylinders Radial 91,3
Cooling  
HP 1,200 each1
Propeller blades 3 each1, VDM wooden blades3
Fuel Capacity 640 gallons3
Dimensions  
Span 112'3
34.2 m3
Length 79' 4"3
24.2 m3
Weight  
Empty 27,500 lb3
12,500 kg3
Loaded 43,000 lb3
19,520 kg3
Performance  
Cruising speed 145 - 150 mph3
232 - 240 kph3
Range 1,120 miles3
1,790 km3
Maximum range 1,800 miles3
2,980 km3
Armament  
Dorsal Turret 1: MG 151/203
  Junkers Ju 352A
Type Transport1
Crew 4 - 51
Passengers 321
OR  
Cargo 9,480 lb1
4,300 kg1
Dimensions  
Span 112' 3"1
34.21 m1
Length 79' 5"1
24.2 m1
Height 21' 8"1
6.6 m1
Weight  
Empty 27,558 lb1
12,500 kg1
Loaded 43,034 lb1
19,520 kg1
Performance  
Speed @ 7,875' /
2,400 m
205 mph1
330 kph1
Cruising speed 152 mph1
245 kph1
Climb to 3,280' /
1,000 m
3.2 minutes1
Service ceiling 19,685'1
6,000 m1
Range 1,120 miles1
1,800 km1
Maximum range 1,852 miles1
2,980 km1
Armament  
Dorsal turret 1: 20 mm1
Lateral 2: 13 mm MG1
  Junkers Ju 352A-1
Type Transport2
Crew 3 - 42
Engine (Type) 3: BMW 323 R-22
Cylinders Radial 92
Cooling Air2
HP 1,000 each2
Dimensions  
Span 112' 2"2
Length 80' 8"2
Height 18' 10"2
Weight  
Loaded 43,000 lb2
Performance  
Speed @ 16,565' 230 mph2
Service ceiling 19,685'2
Maximum range 1,860 miles2
Armament 1: 20 mm2

Sources:

  1. Aircraft of WWII, Stewart Wilson, 1998
  2. World War II Airplanes Volume 1, Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi, 1976
  3. Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II, 1989
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site