World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of P-51 Mustang
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of T-34/85
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of Fw-190
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of Churchill
wwiivehicles.com ©2016
Search:
German Balkenkreuz

Germany's Junkers Ju 86 medium bomber

Photos

  • Junkers Ju 86 bomber
  • Junkers Ju 86 bomber
  • Junkers Ju 86 bomber
  • Junkers Ju 86 K bomber
  • Junkers Ju 86 K bomber
  • Junkers Ju 86 P2 bomber
  • Junkers Ju 86 P2 bomber
  • Junkers Ju 86

Design

The RLM (German air ministry) and the Deutsche Lufthansa (national airline) worked on specifications for a medium bomber and a ten passenger transport in secret. The Junkers Ju 86's design work started in 1934.

Heinkel and Junkers produced designs, the He 111 and Ju 86 respectively. The He 111 was preferred as the Ju 86 had issues with performance.

Cockpit

Visibility from the cockpit was poor and was the cause of many accidents.

Fuselage

On the underside of the fuselage was a gondola that was retractable. It had a single machine gun that was operated by a crew member. When it was lowered is reduced the Ju 86's performance.

Prototype

The first prototype the Ju 86(V1) took flight on November 4, 1934. These had stability problems and was corrected with a new wing that appeared in 1936.

The Ju 86P prototypes first flew in February 1940. These were converted from Ju 86Ds.

Production

  • Junkers Ju 86A: 33
  • Junkers Ju 86D: 140
  • Junkers Ju 86E: 50
  • Junkers Ju 86G: 40
  • Junkers Ju 86K: 148
    • Saab built: 16
  • Junkers Ju 86P: 43
  • Junkers Ju 86R: Few
  • Junkers Ju 86Z: 33
  • Total: 470
    • Manufacturer: Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenwerke A.G.

Variants

  • Junkers Ju 86V1: Prototype. Was an airliner with Siemens SAM 22 radial engines.
  • Junkers Ju 86V2: Prototype. Bomber.
  • Junkers Ju 86A-1: First bomber version that entered service with the Luftwaffe. Delivered in spring of 1936. Diesel engines.
  • Junkers Ju 86B-0: Airliner version delivered to the Lufthansa. Transport for Swissair.
  • Junkers Ju 86D-1: Had modified tail to fix control problems. These were evaluated by the Condor Legion in the Spanish Civil War. Main production bomber.
  • Junkers Ju 86E-1: Had BMW 132 radial engines installed.
  • Junkers Ju 86K: Export model. Had Pratt & Whitney Hornet, Bristol Pegasus, or Gnome-Rhône radial engines.
  • Junkers Ju 86P: High altitude reconnaissance.
  • Junkers Ju 86P-1: Bomber. High altitude version used again Britain. Wasn't very successful except being hard for RAF fighters to shoot down at high altitude. Had supercharged Jumo 207 engines and a pressurized cabin. Had a remotely controlled 7.9 mm MG in the rear of the fuselage.
  • Junkers Ju 86P-2: Reconnaissance. Had three cameras. Flew at such high altitudes that most RAF fighters were unable to intercept them.
  • Junkers Ju 86R: High altitude reconnaissance. Had wings that tapered to a point. Converted from Ju 86Ps. Used in a special unit in 1943 - 1944.
  • Junkers Ju 86Z: Civilian transport for export. Had Junkers Jumo, Pratt & Whitney Hornet, or BMW 132 engines.

Usage

Brazil, Chile, Germany, Hungary, Manchuria, Portugal, South Africa, and Sweden used the Junkers Ju 86.

  • Junkers Ju 86K
    • Hungary: 66
    • Manchuria: 5
    • Portugal: 10
    • South Africa: 4
    • Sweden: 56
      • Saab built: 16
  • Junkers Ju 86Z
    • South Africa: 17

Spanish Civil War

Combat experience in 1936 during the Spanish Civil War showed how vulnerable the Ju 86 was.

Poland

The Ju 86G was used in the invasion of Poland in September 1939.

High Altitude Work

In 1940 the Ju 86 became a high altitude reconnaissance / bomber plane.

Were used over Britain initially, but also saw service in the Mediterranean.

The RAF countered with specially modified Spitfire Vs. Three Ju 86Ps were shot down over the Mediterranean by mid 1942. One unverified kill was claimed by a pilot that said he shot down a Ju 86P at 49,500' / 15,088 m.

The Ju 86Ps also photographed large areas of the Soviet Union before June 1941.

Stalingrad

During the encirclement of Stalingrad Ju 86 trainers were brought to the front to fly in supplies. Forty were lost.

Hungary

The Hungarian air force used Ju 86s against the Soviets until mid-1944.

South Africa

South African Airways used the Ju 86 as airliners. The South African air force used them for training. The Ju 86s were also used for coastal patrols and as bombers against the Italians in East Africa in 1941.

Sweden

Saab built Ju 86 transports and were used into the 1950s.

Specifications

  Junkers Ju 86
Type Bomber
Crew 4
Dimensions  
Span 74'
22.6 m
Armament  
Nose 1: 7.9 mm MG
Dorsal 1: 7.9 mm MG
Ventral 1: 7.9 mm MG
Bombs 2,205 lb
1,000 kg
  Junkers Ju 86D
Type Bomber
Engine (Type) 2: Junkers Jumo 205C diesel
Cylinders Vertically opposed 6
HP 600 each
Propeller blades 3 each
Dimensions  
Span 73' 10"
22.5 m
Length 58' 7.5"
17.87 m
Height 16' 7"
5.05 m
Weight  
Empty 11,354 lb
5,150 kg
Loaded 17,770 lb
8,060 kg
Performance  
Speed at sea level 186 mph
300 kph
Speed @ 9,843' /
3,000 m
202 mph
325 kph
Cruising speed 171 mph
275 kph
Service ceiling 19,360'
5,900 m
Range 932 miles
1,500 km
  Junkers Ju 86D-1
Type Medium bomber
Crew 4
Engine (Type) 2: Jumo 205C-4
Cylinders 6
HP 600 each
Propeller blades 3 each
Dimensions  
Span 73' 10"
22.5 m
Length 58' 8"
17.87 m
Height 16' 7"
5.06 m
Wing area 883 ft2
82 m2
Weight  
Empty 11,354 lb
5,150 kg
Loaded 18,078 lb
8,200 kg
Performance  
Speed @ 9,850' /
3,000 m
202 mph
325 kph
Cruising speed @ 11,485' /
3,500 m
177 mph
285 kph
Service ceiling 19,360'
5,900 m
Range 932 miles
1,500 km
Armament  
Nose 1: 7.92 mm MG
Dorsal 1: 7.92 mm MG
Ventral 1: 7.92 mm MG
Bombs 1,764 lb
800 kg
  Junkers Ju 86E, Junkers Ju 86E-1
Type Bomber
Crew 4
Engine (Type) 2: BMW 132F
OR 2: BMW 132N
Cylinders Radial 9
Cooling Air
HP F: 810 each
N: 865 each
Propeller blades 3 each
Dimensions  
Span 73' 9"
Length 58' 7"
Height 16' 7"
Weight  
Loaded 18,078 lb
Performance  
Speed @ 13,120' 224 mph
Service ceiling 24,610'
Range 870 miles
Armament 3: MG
Bombs 2,200 lb
  Junkers Ju 86G
Type Bomber
Engine (Type) 2: BMW 132F
OR 2: BMW 132N
Cylinders Radial 9
HP F: 810 each
N: 865 each
Propeller blades 3 each
  Junkers Ju 86K
Type Bomber
Engine (Type) 2: Junkers Jumo 205 Diesel
Cylinders In-line
HP 600 each
Dimensions  
Span 73' 9"
Length 58' 8"
Height 15' 8"
Weight  
Loaded 17,700 lb
Performance  
Speed 224 mph
Range 1,500 miles
Armament  
Nose 1: MG
Dorsal Fuselage 1: MG
Gondola 1: MG
  Junkers Ju 86P
Type High altitude reconnaissance / bomber
Engine (Type) 2: Junkers Jumo 207A-1 diesel
OR 2: Junkers Jumo 207B-3 diesel
Cylinders Vertically opposed 6
HP 1,000
Propeller blades 3 each
Dimensions  
Span 84'
25.6 m, 26.81 m
Length 54'
16.46 m
Height 15' 5"
4.7 m
Performance  
Speed @ 39,000' /
11,887 m
242 mph
389 kph
Service ceiling 41,000'
12,500 m
Range 1,087 miles
1,750 km
Armament  
Bombs 2,205 lb
1,000 kg
Rear fuselage 1: 7.9 mm MG
  Junkers Ju 86R
Type High altitude reconnaissance / bomber
Engine (Type) 2: Junkers Jumo 207A-1 diesel
OR 2: Junkers Jumo 207B-3 diesel
Cylinders Vertically opposed 6
HP 1,000
Propeller blades 3 each
Fuel capacity 462 gallons
Dimensions  
Span 105'
32 m
Weight  
Empty 14,947 lb
6,780 kg
Loaded 25,420 lb
11,530 kg
Performance  
Speed @ 29,527' /
8,000 m
260 mph, 262 mph
416 kph, 420 kph
Service ceiling 45,930', 49,000'
14,000 m, 14,950 m
Range 980 miles, 1,085 miles
1,570 km, 1,746 km

Sources:

  1. Aircraft of WWII, General Editor: Jim Winchester, 2004
  2. Aircraft of WWII, Stewart Wilson, 1998
  3. World War II Airplanes Volume 1, Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi, 1976
  4. Aeronautics Aircraft Spotters' Handbook, Ensign L. C. Guthman, 1943
  5. Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II, 1989
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site