World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of P-51 Mustang
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of T-34/85
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of Fw-190
World War II Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes, picture of Churchill
wwiivehicles.com ©2016
Search:
German Balkenkreuz

Germany's Junkers Ju 86 medium bomber

Photos

  • Junkers Ju 86 bomber
  • Junkers Ju 86 bomber
  • Junkers Ju 86 bomber
  • Junkers Ju 86 K bomber
  • Junkers Ju 86 K bomber
  • Junkers Ju 86 P2 bomber
  • Junkers Ju 86 P2 bomber
  • Junkers Ju 86

Design

The RLM (German air ministry) and the Deutsche Lufthansa (national airline) worked on specifications for a medium bomber and a ten passenger transport in secret.1,4 The Junkers Ju 86's design work started in 1934.3

Heinkel and Junkers produced designs, the He 111 and Ju 86 respectively.1 The He 111 was preferred as the Ju 86 had issues with performance.2

Cockpit

Visibility from the cockpit was poor and was the cause of many accidents.1

Fuselage

On the underside of the fuselage was a gondola that was retractable.1 It had a single machine gun that was operated by a crew member.1 When it was lowered is reduced the Ju 86's performance.1

Prototype

The first prototype the Ju 86(V1) took flight on November 4, 1934.1,2 These had stability problems and was corrected with a new wing that appeared in 1936.1

The Ju 86P prototypes first flew in February 1940.1,2 These were converted from Ju 86Ds.2

Production

  • Junkers Ju 86A: 332
  • Junkers Ju 86D: 1402
  • Junkers Ju 86E: 502
  • Junkers Ju 86G: 402
  • Junkers Ju 86K: 1482
    • Saab built: 162
  • Junkers Ju 86P: 432
  • Junkers Ju 86R: Few2
  • Junkers Ju 86Z: 332
  • Total: 4702
    • Manufacturer: Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenwerke A.G.3

Variants

  • Junkers Ju 86V1: Prototype.2 Was an airliner with Siemens SAM 22 radial engines.2
  • Junkers Ju 86V2: Prototype.2 Bomber.2
  • Junkers Ju 86A-1: First bomber version that entered service with the Luftwaffe.1,2 Delivered in spring of 1936.3 Diesel engines.3
  • Junkers Ju 86B-0: Airliner version delivered to the Lufthansa.1 Transport for Swissair.2
  • Junkers Ju 86D-1: Had modified tail to fix control problems.1 These were evaluated by the Condor Legion in the Spanish Civil War.1 Main production bomber.2
  • Junkers Ju 86E-1: Had BMW 132 radial engines installed.1
  • Junkers Ju 86K: Export model.2 Had Pratt & Whitney Hornet, Bristol Pegasus, or Gnome-Rhône radial engines.2
  • Junkers Ju 86P: High altitude reconnaissance.5
  • Junkers Ju 86P-1: Bomber.2 High altitude version used again Britain.1 Wasn't very successful except being hard for RAF fighters to shoot down at high altitude.1 Had supercharged Jumo 207 engines and a pressurized cabin.1,2 Had a remotely controlled 7.9 mm MG in the rear of the fuselage.2
  • Junkers Ju 86P-2: Reconnaissance.2 Had three cameras.2 Flew at such high altitudes that most RAF fighters were unable to intercept them.2
  • Junkers Ju 86R: High altitude reconnaissance.2,5 Had wings that tapered to a point.2 Converted from Ju 86Ps.2 Used in a special unit in 1943 - 1944.2
  • Junkers Ju 86Z: Civilian transport for export.2 Had Junkers Jumo, Pratt & Whitney Hornet, or BMW 132 engines.2

Usage

Brazil, Chile, Germany, Hungary, Manchuria, Portugal, South Africa, and Sweden used the Junkers Ju 86.2

  • Junkers Ju 86K
    • Hungary: 662
    • Manchuria: 52
    • Portugal: 102
    • South Africa: 42
    • Sweden: 562
      • Saab built: 162
  • Junkers Ju 86Z
    • South Africa: 172

Spanish Civil War

Combat experience in 1936 during the Spanish Civil War showed how vulnerable the Ju 86 was.2

Poland

The Ju 86G was used in the invasion of Poland in September 1939.2

High Altitude Work

In 1940 the Ju 86 became a high altitude reconnaissance / bomber plane.2

Were used over Britain initially, but also saw service in the Mediterranean.2

The RAF countered with specially modified Spitfire Vs.2 Three Ju 86Ps were shot down over the Mediterranean by mid 1942.2 One unverified kill was claimed by a pilot that said he shot down a Ju 86P at 49,500' / 15,088 m.2

The Ju 86Ps also photographed large areas of the Soviet Union before June 1941.2

Stalingrad

During the encirclement of Stalingrad Ju 86 trainers were brought to the front to fly in supplies.1,2 Forty were lost.1

Hungary

The Hungarian air force used Ju 86s against the Soviets until mid-1944.1,2

South Africa

South African Airways used the Ju 86 as airliners.1 The South African air force used them for training.1 The Ju 86s were also used for coastal patrols and as bombers against the Italians in East Africa in 1941.2

Sweden

Saab built Ju 86 transports and were used into the 1950s.1

Specifications

  Junkers Ju 86
Type Bomber2
Crew 42
Dimensions  
Span 74'5
22.6 m5
Armament  
Nose 1: 7.9 mm MG2
Dorsal 1: 7.9 mm MG2
Ventral 1: 7.9 mm MG2
Bombs 2,205 lb2
1,000 kg2
  Junkers Ju 86D
Type Bomber2
Engine (Type) 2: Junkers Jumo 205C diesel2
Cylinders Vertically opposed 62
HP 600 each2
Propeller blades 3 each2
Dimensions  
Span 73' 10"2
22.5 m2
Length 58' 7.5"2
17.87 m2
Height 16' 7"2
5.05 m2
Weight  
Empty 11,354 lb2
5,150 kg2
Loaded 17,770 lb2
8,060 kg2
Performance  
Speed at sea level 186 mph2
300 kph2
Speed @ 9,843' /
3,000 m
202 mph2
325 kph2
Cruising speed 171 mph2
275 kph2
Service ceiling 19,360'2
5,900 m2
Range 932 miles2
1,500 km2
  Junkers Ju 86D-1
Type Medium bomber1
Crew 41
Engine (Type) 2: Jumo 205C-41
Cylinders 61
HP 600 each1
Propeller blades 3 each1
Dimensions  
Span 73' 10"1
22.5 m1
Length 58' 8"1
17.87 m1
Height 16' 7"1
5.06 m1
Wing area 883 ft2 1
82 m2 1
Weight  
Empty 11,354 lb1
5,150 kg1
Loaded 18,078 lb1
8,200 kg1
Performance  
Speed @ 9,850' /
3,000 m
202 mph1
325 kph1
Cruising speed @ 11,485' /
3,500 m
177 mph1
285 kph1
Service ceiling 19,360'1
5,900 m1
Range 932 miles1
1,500 km1
Armament  
Nose 1: 7.92 mm MG1
Dorsal 1: 7.92 mm MG1
Ventral 1: 7.92 mm MG1
Bombs 1,764 lb1
800 kg1
  Junkers Ju 86E, Junkers Ju 86E-1
Type Bomber2,3
Crew 43
Engine (Type) 2: BMW 132F2,3
OR 2: BMW 132N2
Cylinders Radial 92,3
Cooling Air3
HP F: 810 each2,3
N: 865 each2
Propeller blades 3 each2
Dimensions  
Span 73' 9"3
Length 58' 7"3
Height 16' 7"3
Weight  
Loaded 18,078 lb3
Performance  
Speed @ 13,120' 224 mph3
Service ceiling 24,610'3
Range 870 miles3
Armament 3: MG3
Bombs 2,200 lb3
  Junkers Ju 86G
Type Bomber2
Engine (Type) 2: BMW 132F2
OR 2: BMW 132N2
Cylinders Radial 92
HP F: 810 each2
N: 865 each2
Propeller blades 3 each2
  Junkers Ju 86K
Type Bomber4
Engine (Type) 2: Junkers Jumo 205 Diesel4
Cylinders In-line4
HP 600 each4
Dimensions  
Span 73' 9"4
Length 58' 8"4
Height 15' 8"4
Weight  
Loaded 17,700 lb4
Performance  
Speed 224 mph4
Range 1,500 miles4
Armament  
Nose 1: MG4
Dorsal Fuselage 1: MG4
Gondola 1: MG4
  Junkers Ju 86P
Type High altitude reconnaissance / bomber2
Engine (Type) 2: Junkers Jumo 207A-1 diesel2,5
OR 2: Junkers Jumo 207B-3 diesel2
Cylinders Vertically opposed 62
HP 1,0002
Propeller blades 3 each2
Dimensions  
Span 84'2,5
25.6 m5, 26.81 m2
Length 54'2
16.46 m2
Height 15' 5"2
4.7 m2
Performance  
Speed @ 39,000' /
11,887 m
242 mph2
389 kph2
Service ceiling 41,000'2
12,500 m2
Range 1,087 miles2
1,750 km2
Armament  
Bombs 2,205 lb2
1,000 kg2
Rear fuselage 1: 7.9 mm MG2
  Junkers Ju 86R
Type High altitude reconnaissance / bomber2
Engine (Type) 2: Junkers Jumo 207A-1 diesel2
OR 2: Junkers Jumo 207B-3 diesel2,5
Cylinders Vertically opposed 62
HP 1,0002
Propeller blades 3 each2
Fuel capacity 462 gallons5
Dimensions  
Span 105'2,5
32 m2,5
Weight  
Empty 14,947 lb2
6,780 kg2
Loaded 25,420 lb2
11,530 kg2
Performance  
Speed @ 29,527' /
8,000 m
260 mph5, 262 mph2
416 kph5, 420 kph2
Service ceiling 45,930'2, 49,000'5
14,000 m2, 14,950 m5
Range 980 miles5, 1,085 miles2
1,570 km5, 1,746 km2

Sources:

  1. Aircraft of WWII, General Editor: Jim Winchester, 2004
  2. Aircraft of WWII, Stewart Wilson, 1998
  3. World War II Airplanes Volume 1, Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi, 1976
  4. Aeronautics Aircraft Spotters' Handbook, Ensign L. C. Guthman, 1943
  5. Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II, 1989
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site