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Czechoslovakia's LT vz 35 medium tank, light tank

Photos

LT vz 35 tank at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds:
Czechoslovakia's LT vz 35 tank at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds
Nick Francis
LT vz 35 medium tank:
Czechoslovakia's LT vz 35 tank at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds
Aberdeen Proving Grounds
LT vz 35 medium tank:
Czechoslovakia's LT vz 35 medium tank

Design

In October 19345 / 1934 the Czechoslovakian army asked for prototypes of a medium tank.6,11

The requirements asked for a rear sprocket drive so that the fighting compartment could be less congested.10 The transmission was to be six stage.10 Compressed air power steering was to be used to reduce the wear on the driver.10 The suspension was to allow the weight to be distributed evenly to the all the bogies.10

The commander/gunner and loader/radio operator were in the turret.5,6 The bow machine gunner was on the left and the driver on the right.5

Czech crews weren't happy with it because early vehicles had many mechanical defects.7 However, these were fixed and the LT vz 35 became very popular.7

Construction

Used riveted and bolted armor.5,6

Propulsion

The engine and transmission were in the rear of the vehicle.6 The drive sprocket was in the rear and the idler in front which allowed for the fighting compartment to be free of the drive mechanism.6,8 Had compressed-air assisted mechanical steering which later had problems in low temperature conditions.6

The tracks and bogies could last up 4,000 - 8,000 km.8,10

Main Armament

The 37 mm gun was semi-automatic and had a dial sight mechanism.10 The LT-35 was the first Skoda manufactured tank to have a turret.10 To line the 37 mm up with a target horizontally the whole turret had to be moved.10 The gunner could elevate the gun via an elevating mechanism or by his shoulder.10

The 37 mm had a muzzle velocity of 2,620'/sec.10 The 37 mm gun had a reputation for accuracy.11

There was a coaxial machine gun that had its own sighting telescope.10

The bow machine gun was on the left side with it's gunner and the driver on the right.6 The machine gun had a sighting telescope.10

Prototype

Two prototypes were ordered and were designated the S-11-a or Model T-11.5,6 These were field tested in June 1935 and even though many design flaws were discovered 160 were ordered in October 1935.5,6 The first 5 were delivered but with more testing and finding still many flaws these were returned to the Skoda factory to be fixed.6 Another 138 were ordered and were named the LT vz 35.5,6

Production

  • Chassis #s: 50001-504243
  • Manufacturer: Skoda9 80%3, CKD 20%3
  • Production: 1935 - ?9
    • 1935 - ?: 298
    • 1935 - 1938: 4243

Variants

  • S-11-a / T-11: Prototype.5,10
  • LT vz 35; LT-35:
  • S-IIb: One pilot model built. Trials occurred in 1938, but it was unreliable.
  • S-IIr: Only developed in prototype. Hungary modified this design and it became the 40 M Turan. It was built from 1941 on.
  • Hungarian Use:
    • Turan I: Was called the R-2 and 126 were ordered in 1935. Had new 3 man turret and 260 hp engine.
  • German Use:

Usage

In March 1939, 79 were given to Slovakia, and 218 were taken by the Germans.7
219 were built for the Germans by Skoda.5,6

Germany terminated production in the summer of 1940 / 194111.7

Also sold to:

Invasion of France

The 6th Division was equipped with 106 the PzKpfw 35(t).5,6,8

Specifications

LT vz 35; LTM-35
Crew Commander, loader/radio, driver, hull gunner6,8,10
41,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11
Physical Characteristics  
Weight 23,300 lb, 23,150 lb, 23,148 lb5,6
10,500 kg5,6, 10,670 kg1,11
10.5 tons1,2,3,4,7,8,10,11, 11.6 tons9
Length w/gun 14' 7"7, 14.88'10, 15' 1.5"8, 16' 0.75", 16' 1"1,4,5,6,11, 16' 6"9
4.45 m7, 4.9 m1,2,3,5,6,11
Length w/o gun 14' 7"7
4.45 m7
Height 7.21'10, 7.4'9, 7' 3"1,4,5,6,7,11, 7' 4.5"8, 7' 8.5"
2.2 m7, 2.209 m5,6, 2.21 m1,11, 2.35 m3, 2.37 m2
Width 6.75'9, 6' 11", 7'7, 7' 1"1,5,6,11, 7.03'10, 7' 0.5"4,8
2.06 m2, 2.1 m3, 2.14 m7, 2.159 m5,6, 2.16 m1,11
Ground clearance 1' 1.8"9, 1.15'10
0.35 m2
Ground contact length 10' 6"9,10.7'10
3.14 m
Ground pressure 7 psi9, 7.55 psi10
0.5 (kg/cm2)2
Turret ring diameter  
Armament  
Main 1: 37 mm1,4,9,11
1: 37 mm L/402,8
1: 37 mm KwK34(t) L/403
1: 37.2 mm Skoda vz 345,6
1: 37.2 mm Skoda A3 L/407,10
1: 37.2 mm KwK A3(t) L/407
Secondary  
MG 2: 7.92 mm MG1,4
2: MGs2
2: 7.92 mm MG37(t)3
2: 7.9 mm MG9
MG - coaxial 1: 7.92 mm MG11
1: 7.92 mm MG(t)7
1: 7.92 mm Besa MG8
1: 7.92 mm vz37 MG7
1: 7.92 mm ZB vz 355,6
1: 7.92 mm 7166 CZ Type 37 MG10
OR 1: 7.92 mm ZB vz 375,6
MG - hull 1: 7.92 mm MG11
1: 7.92 mm MG(t)7
1: 7.92 mm Besa MG8
1: 7.92 mm vz37 MG7
1: 7.92 mm ZB vz 356
1: 7.92 mm 7166 CZ Type 37 MG10
OR 1: 7.92 mm ZB vz 376
Side arms  
Quantity  
Main 72 Pzgr & Sprgr3, 782, 90 (HE and AP)10
725,6,7,9
Secondary  
MG 1,8003,5,6,7,9, 2,55010, 2,7002
Side arms  
Armor Thickness (mm) Front: 0.99"9
Side: 0.63"9
15 - 251, 254, 11, 12 - 358, 15 - 356, 3510
Hull Front, Upper 252, 3510
25@17°3, 25@76°7
Hull Front, Lower 2810
25@30°3, 25@40°7
Hull Sides, Upper 162, 2410
16@0°3, 16@87°7
Hull Sides, Lower 1610
16@0°3
Hull Rear 162, 2010
16, 15/60°3, 16@30°7
Hull Top 122, 2010
12, 8@85-90°3
Hull Bottom 82
8@90°3
Turret Front 252, 2810, 1"9
25@10°3, 25@85°
Mantlet: 25 round3, 3510
Turret Sides 162,10, 0.63"9
15@14°3, 15@76°7
Turret Rear 162,10
15@15°3, 15@82°7
Turret Top 82, 1610
8@81-90°3, 12@0-5°7
Engine (Make / Model) Skoda T111,2,3,7,9,11
Skoda4,5,6
OHV Skoda T-118,10
Cooling Water5,6,8,10
Cylinders 47, 65,6,9,11, I-610
Capacity 8.5 liter10
Net HP 1205,6,7,9,11
120@1,800 rpm8,10
Transmission 6 forward, 1 reverse.2,5,6 Pneumatic.
6 forward, 6 reverse.3,10
12 speed, pneumatic servo mechanical steering8
Steering  
Starter  
Electrical System 12 volt10
Ignition  
Fuel (type) Gasoline5,6,7,11
Octane  
Capacity 34 gallons7,10
153 liters2,7
Fuel used per 100 km of road travel: 81 liters
Fuel consumption - Road 3.5 mpg10
Fuel consumption - Cross country  
Power to weigh ratio  
Performance  
Traverse 360°, hand3,10
Speed - Road 15 mph9, 21.1 mph4, 22 mph1,11, 25 mph5,6,7,8,10
34 kph2, 35 kph1,3,11, 40 kph5,6,7
Speed - Cross Country 12.5 mph7
20 kph7
Range - Road 118 miles7,9,11, 120 miles5,6,8,10
190 km2,3,7,11, 193 km5,6
Range - Cross Country 71 miles9, 71.5 miles7, 72 miles10
115 km2
Turning Radius 16'10
4.9 m, 7 m2
Elevation Limits -10° to +25°3,10
Fording depth 2.6'10, 31.5"9, 3' 4"5,6
0.8 m2,5,6
Trench crossing 6' 6"5,6, 6.6'9,10
1.981 m5,6
Vertical Obstacle 2.6'10, 2' 7"5,6, 31.5"9
0.787 m5,6
Climbing ability 28.6° (54%) slope9,10
60%6
Suspension (Type) Small bogie wheels coupled in pairs and mounted in fours on rocker arms, small guide wheel between front idler and first bogie wheel8,10
Leaf Spring2,8
Resilient suspension suspended from 2 leaf springs.7
2 sets of double leaf springs on 2 bogies of 2 wheels each9
Wheels each side 8x22,7, 86
Return rollers each side 48,9,10
Tracks (Type) Magnesium10
Dry pin9,10
Length  
Width 10.5"10, 1', 13.25"9
320 mm2
Number of links 1059,10
Pitch 4"9, 4.15"10
Tire tread  
Track centers/tread 5.4'9, 5.41'10
1.66 m

Sources:

  1. The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles - The Comprehensive Guide to Over 900 Armored Fighting Vehicles From 1915 to the Present Day, General Editor: Christopher F. Foss, 2002
  2. Panzer Truppen The Complete Guide to the Creation and Combat Employment of Germany's Tank Force 1933-1942, Thomas L. Jentz, 1996
  3. Encyclopedia of German Tanks of World War Two, Peter Chamberlain and Hilary Doyle, 1999
  4. Tanks of the World, 1915-1945, Peter Chamberlain, Chris Ellis, 1972
  5. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Chris Bishop, 1998
  6. Tanks - Over 250 of the World's Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles, Chris Chant, 2004
  7. German Tanks of World War II, Dr. S. Hart & Dr. R. Hart, 1998
  8. Tanks of World War II, Duncan Crow, 1979
  9. Tank Data, Aberdeen Proving Grounds Series, 1968?
  10. Profile AFV Weapons #22 Panzerkampfwagen 38(t) & 35(t), John Milsom, 1970
  11. World War I and II Tanks, George Forty, 2012
20th Century American Military History Crucial Site